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builtins.c

/***********************************************************************
*                                                                      *
*               This software is part of the ast package               *
*          Copyright (c) 1982-2010 AT&T Intellectual Property          *
*                      and is licensed under the                       *
*                  Common Public License, Version 1.0                  *
*                    by AT&T Intellectual Property                     *
*                                                                      *
*                A copy of the License is available at                 *
*            http://www.opensource.org/licenses/cpl1.0.txt             *
*         (with md5 checksum 059e8cd6165cb4c31e351f2b69388fd9)         *
*                                                                      *
*              Information and Software Systems Research               *
*                            AT&T Research                             *
*                           Florham Park NJ                            *
*                                                                      *
*                  David Korn <dgk@research.att.com>                   *
*                                                                      *
***********************************************************************/
#pragma prototyped

#include    <shell.h>
#include    <signal.h>
#include    "defs.h"
#include    "shtable.h"
#include    "ulimit.h"
#include    "name.h"
#include    "version.h"
#if KSHELL
#   include "builtins.h"
#   include "jobs.h"
#   include "FEATURE/cmds"
#   define  bltin(x)    (b_##x)
    /* The following is for builtins that do not accept -- options */
#   define  Bltin(x)    (B_##x)
#else
#   define bltin(x)     0
#endif

#if defined(SHOPT_CMDLIB_DIR) && !defined(SHOPT_CMDLIB_HDR)
#     define SHOPT_CMDLIB_HDR <cmdlist.h>
#endif
#define Q(f)            #f    /* libpp cpp workaround -- fixed 2005-04-11 */
#define CMDLIST(f)      SH_CMDLIB_DIR "/" Q(f), NV_BLTIN|NV_BLTINOPT|NV_NOFREE, bltin(f),

#undef      basename
#undef      dirname

/*
 * The order up through "[" is significant
 */
const struct shtable3 shtab_builtins[] =
{
      "login",    NV_BLTIN|BLT_ENV|BLT_SPC,     Bltin(login),
      "exec",           NV_BLTIN|BLT_ENV|BLT_SPC,     bltin(exec),
      "set",            NV_BLTIN|BLT_ENV|BLT_SPC,     bltin(set), 
      ":",        NV_BLTIN|BLT_ENV|BLT_SPC,     bltin(true),
      "true",           NV_BLTIN|BLT_ENV,       bltin(true),
      "command",  NV_BLTIN|BLT_ENV|BLT_EXIT,    bltin(command),
      "cd",       NV_BLTIN|BLT_ENV,       bltin(cd),
      "break",    NV_BLTIN|BLT_ENV|BLT_SPC,     bltin(break),
      "continue", NV_BLTIN|BLT_ENV|BLT_SPC,     bltin(break),
      "typeset",  NV_BLTIN|BLT_ENV|BLT_SPC|BLT_DCL,bltin(typeset),
      "test",           NV_BLTIN|BLT_ENV,       bltin(test),
      "[",        NV_BLTIN|BLT_ENV,       bltin(test),
      "let",            NV_BLTIN|BLT_ENV,       bltin(let),
      "export",   NV_BLTIN|BLT_ENV|BLT_SPC|BLT_DCL,bltin(readonly),
      ".",        NV_BLTIN|BLT_ENV|BLT_SPC,     bltin(dot_cmd),
      "return",   NV_BLTIN|BLT_ENV|BLT_SPC,     bltin(return),
#if SHOPT_BASH
      "local",    NV_BLTIN|BLT_ENV|BLT_SPC|BLT_DCL,bltin(typeset),
#endif
#if _bin_newgrp || _usr_bin_newgrp
      "newgrp",   NV_BLTIN|BLT_ENV|BLT_SPC,     Bltin(login),
#endif      /* _bin_newgrp || _usr_bin_newgrp */
      "alias",    NV_BLTIN|BLT_SPC|BLT_DCL,     bltin(alias),
      "hash",           NV_BLTIN|BLT_SPC|BLT_DCL,     bltin(alias),
      "enum",           NV_BLTIN|BLT_ENV|BLT_SPC|BLT_DCL,bltin(enum),
      "eval",           NV_BLTIN|BLT_ENV|BLT_SPC|BLT_EXIT,bltin(eval),
      "exit",           NV_BLTIN|BLT_ENV|BLT_SPC,     bltin(return),
      "fc",       NV_BLTIN|BLT_ENV|BLT_EXIT,    bltin(hist),
      "hist",           NV_BLTIN|BLT_ENV|BLT_EXIT,    bltin(hist),
      "readonly", NV_BLTIN|BLT_ENV|BLT_SPC|BLT_DCL,bltin(readonly),
      "shift",    NV_BLTIN|BLT_ENV|BLT_SPC,     bltin(shift),
      "trap",           NV_BLTIN|BLT_ENV|BLT_SPC,     bltin(trap),
      "unalias",  NV_BLTIN|BLT_ENV|BLT_SPC,     bltin(unalias),
      "unset",    NV_BLTIN|BLT_ENV|BLT_SPC,     bltin(unset),
      "builtin",  NV_BLTIN,               bltin(builtin),
#if SHOPT_ECHOPRINT
      "echo",           NV_BLTIN|BLT_ENV,       bltin(print),
#else
      "echo",           NV_BLTIN|BLT_ENV,       Bltin(echo),
#endif /* SHOPT_ECHOPRINT */
#ifdef JOBS
#   ifdef SIGTSTP
      "bg",       NV_BLTIN|BLT_ENV,       bltin(bg),
      "fg",       NV_BLTIN|BLT_ENV|BLT_EXIT,    bltin(bg),
      "disown",   NV_BLTIN|BLT_ENV,       bltin(bg),
      "kill",           NV_BLTIN|BLT_ENV,       bltin(kill),
#   else
      "/bin/kill",      NV_BLTIN|BLT_ENV,       bltin(kill),
#   endif   /* SIGTSTP */
      "jobs",           NV_BLTIN|BLT_ENV,       bltin(jobs),
#endif      /* JOBS */
      "false",    NV_BLTIN|BLT_ENV,       bltin(false),
      "getopts",  NV_BLTIN|BLT_ENV,       bltin(getopts),
      "print",    NV_BLTIN|BLT_ENV,       bltin(print),
      "printf",   NV_BLTIN|BLT_ENV,       bltin(printf),
      "pwd",            NV_BLTIN,               bltin(pwd),
      "read",           NV_BLTIN|BLT_ENV,       bltin(read),
      "sleep",    NV_BLTIN,               bltin(sleep),
      "alarm",    NV_BLTIN,               bltin(alarm),
      "ulimit",   NV_BLTIN|BLT_ENV,       bltin(ulimit),
      "umask",    NV_BLTIN|BLT_ENV,       bltin(umask),
#ifdef _cmd_universe
      "universe", NV_BLTIN|BLT_ENV,       bltin(universe),
#endif /* _cmd_universe */
#if SHOPT_FS_3D
      "vpath",    NV_BLTIN|BLT_ENV,       bltin(vpath),
      "vmap",           NV_BLTIN|BLT_ENV,       bltin(vpath),
#endif /* SHOPT_FS_3D */
      "wait",           NV_BLTIN|BLT_ENV|BLT_EXIT,    bltin(wait),
      "type",           NV_BLTIN|BLT_ENV,       bltin(whence),
      "whence",   NV_BLTIN|BLT_ENV,       bltin(whence),
#ifdef SHOPT_CMDLIB_HDR
#include SHOPT_CMDLIB_HDR
#else
      CMDLIST(basename)
      CMDLIST(chmod)
      CMDLIST(dirname)
      CMDLIST(getconf)
      CMDLIST(head)
      CMDLIST(mkdir)
      CMDLIST(logname)
      CMDLIST(cat)
      CMDLIST(cmp)
      CMDLIST(cut)
      CMDLIST(uname)
      CMDLIST(wc)
      CMDLIST(sync)
#endif
#if SHOPT_REGRESS
      "__regress__",          NV_BLTIN|BLT_ENV, bltin(__regress__),
#endif
      "",         0, 0 
};


const char sh_set[] =
"[a?Set the export attribute for each variable whose name does not "
      "contain a \b.\b that you assign a value in the current shell "
      "environment.]"
"[b?The shell writes a message to standard error as soon it detects that "
      "a background job completes rather than waiting until the next prompt.]"
"[e?A simple command that has an non-zero exit status will cause the shell "
      "to exit unless the simple command is:]{"
      "[++?contained in an \b&&\b or \b||\b list.]"
      "[++?the command immediately following \bif\b, \bwhile\b, or \buntil\b.]"
      "[++?contained in the pipeline following \b!\b.]"
"}"
"[f?Pathname expansion is disabled.]"
"[h?Obsolete.  Causes each command whose name has the syntax of an "
      "alias to become a tracked alias when it is first encountered.]"
"[k?This is obsolete.  All arguments of the form \aname\a\b=\b\avalue\a "
      "are removed and placed in the variable assignment list for "
      "the command.  Ordinarily, variable assignments must precede "
      "command arguments.]"
"[m?When enabled, the shell runs background jobs in a separate process "
      "group and displays a line upon completion.  This mode is enabled "
      "by default for interactive shells on systems that support job "
      "control.]"
"[n?The shell reads commands and checks for syntax errors, but does "
      "not execute the command.  Usually specified on command invocation.]"
"[o]:?[option?If \aoption\a is not specified, the list of options and "
      "their current settings will be written to standard output.  When "
      "invoked with a \b+\b the options will be written in a format "
      "that can be reinput to the shell to restore the settings. "
      "This option can be repeated to enable/disable multiple options. "
      "The value of \aoption\a must be one of the following:]{"
            "[+allexport?Equivalent to \b-a\b.]"
            "[+bgnice?Runs background jobs at lower priorities.]"
            "[+braceexpand?Equivalent to \b-B\b.] "
            "[+emacs?Enables/disables \bemacs\b editing mode.]"
            "[+errexit?Equivalent to \b-e\b.]"
            "[+globstar?Equivalent to \b-G\b.]"
            "[+gmacs?Enables/disables \bgmacs\b editing mode.  \bgmacs\b "
                  "editing mode is the same as \bemacs\b editing mode "
                  "except for the handling of \b^T\b.]"
#if SHOPT_BASH
            "[+hashall?Equivalent to \b-h\b and \b-o trackall\b. Available "
            "in bash compatibility mode only.]"
            "[+history?Enable command history. Available in bash "
            "compatibility mode only. On by default in interactive "
            "shells.]"
#endif
#if SHOPT_HISTEXPAND
            "[+histexpand?Equivalent to \b-H\b.]"
#endif
            "[+ignoreeof?Prevents an interactive shell from exiting on "
                  "reading an end-of-file.]"
            "[+keyword?Equivalent to \b-k\b.]"
            "[+markdirs?A trailing \b/\b is appended to directories "
                  "resulting from pathname expansion.]"
            "[+monitor?Equivalent to \b-m\b.]"
            "[+multiline?Use multiple lines when editing lines that are "
                  "longer than the window width.]"
            "[+noclobber?Equivalent to \b-C\b.]"
            "[+noexec?Equivalent to \b-n\b.]"
            "[+noglob?Equivalent to \b-f\b.]"
            "[+nolog?This has no effect.  It is provided for backward "
                  "compatibility.]"
            "[+notify?Equivalent to \b-b\b.]"
            "[+nounset?Equivalent to \b-u\b.]"
#if SHOPT_BASH
            "[+onecmd?Equivalent to \b-t\b. Available in bash compatibility "
            "mode only.]"
            "[+physical?Equivalent to \b-P\b. Available in bash "
            "compatibility mode only.]"
            "[+posix?Turn on POSIX compatibility. Available in bash "
            "compatibility mode only. Bash in POSIX mode is not the "
            "same as ksh.]"
#endif
            "[+pipefail?A pipeline will not complete until all components "
                  "of the pipeline have completed, and the exit status "
                  "of the pipeline will be the value of the last "
                  "command to exit with non-zero exit status, or will "
                  "be zero if all commands return zero exit status.]"
            "[+privileged?Equivalent to \b-p\b.]"
            "[+showme?Simple commands preceded by a \b;\b will be traced "
                  "as if \b-x\b were enabled but not executed.]"
            "[+trackall?Equivalent to \b-h\b.]"
            "[+verbose?Equivalent to \b-v\b.]"
            "[+vi?Enables/disables \bvi\b editing mode.]"
            "[+viraw?Does not use canonical input mode when using \bvi\b "
                  "edit mode.]"
            "[+xtrace?Equivalent to \b-x\b.]"
"}"
"[p?Privileged mode.  Disabling \b-p\b sets the effective user id to the "
      "real user id, and the effective group id to the real group id.  "
      "Enabling \b-p\b restores the effective user and group ids to their "
      "values when the shell was invoked.  The \b-p\b option is on "
      "whenever the real and effective user id is not equal or the "
      "real and effective group id is not equal.  User profiles are "
      "not processed when \b-p\b is enabled.]"
"[r?restricted.  Enables restricted shell.  This option cannot be unset once "
      "enabled.]"
"[t?Obsolete.  The shell reads one command and then exits.]"
"[u?If enabled, the shell displays an error message when it tries to expand "
      "a variable that is unset.]"
"[v?Verbose.  The shell displays its input onto standard error as it "
      "reads it.]"
"[x?Execution trace.  The shell will display each command after all "
      "expansion and before execution preceded by the expanded value "
      "of the \bPS4\b parameter.]"
#if SHOPT_BASH
      "\fbash1\f"
#endif
#if SHOPT_BRACEPAT
"[B?Enable {...} group expansion. On by default.]"
#endif
"[C?Prevents existing regular files from being overwritten using the \b>\b "
      "redirection operator.  The \b>|\b redirection overrides this "
      "\bnoclobber\b option.]"
"[G?Causes \b**\b by itself to also match all sub-directories during pathname "
      "expansion.]"
#if SHOPT_HISTEXPAND
   "[H?Enable \b!\b-style history expansion similar to \bcsh\b.]"
#endif
;

const char sh_optbreak[] =
"[-1c?\n@(#)$Id: break (AT&T Research) 1999-04-07 $\n]"
USAGE_LICENSE
"[+NAME?break - break out of loop ]"
"[+DESCRIPTION?\bbreak\b is a shell special built-in that exits the "
      "smallest enclosing \bfor\b, \bselect\b, \bwhile\b, or \buntil\b loop, "
      "or the \an\a-th enclosing loop if \an\a is specified.  "
      "Execution continues at the command following the loop(s).]"
"[+?If \an\a is given, it must be a positive integer >= 1. If \an\a "
      "is larger than the number of enclosing loops, the last enclosing "
      "loop will be exited.]"
"\n"
"\n[n]\n"
"\n"
"[+EXIT STATUS?0]"
"[+SEE ALSO?\bcontinue\b(1), \breturn\b(1)]"
;

const char sh_optcont[] =
"[-1c?\n@(#)$Id: continue (AT&T Research) 1999-04-07 $\n]"
USAGE_LICENSE
"[+NAME?continue - continue execution at top of the loop]"
"[+DESCRIPTION?\bcontinue\b is a shell special built-in that continues " 
      "execution at the top of smallest enclosing enclosing \bfor\b, "
      "\bselect\b, \bwhile\b, or \buntil\b loop, if any; or the top of "
      "the \an\a-th enclosing loop if \an\a is specified.]"
"[+?If \an\a is given, it must be a positive integer >= 1. If \an\a "
      "is larger than the number of enclosing loops, the last enclosing "
      " loop will be used.]"

"\n"
"\n[n]\n"
"\n"
"[+SEE ALSO?\bbreak\b(1)]"
;

const char sh_optalarm[]      = "r [varname seconds]";
const char sh_optalias[] =
"[-1c?\n@(#)$Id: alias (AT&T Research) 1999-07-07 $\n]"
USAGE_LICENSE
"[+NAME?alias - define or display aliases]"
"[+DESCRIPTION?\balias\b creates or redefines alias definitions "
      "or writes the existing alias definitions to standard output.  "
      "An alias definitions provides a string value that will replace "
      "a command name when the command is read.  Alias names can "
      "contain any printable character which is not special to the shell.  "
      "If an alias value ends in a space or tab, then the word "
      "following the command name the alias replaces is also checked "
      "to see whether it is an alias.]"
"[+?If no \aname\as are specified then the names and values of all "
      "aliases are written to standard output.  Otherwise, for "
      "each \aname\a that is specified, and \b=\b\avalue\a  is not "
      "specified, the current value of the alias corresponding to "
      "\aname\a is written to standard output.  If \b=\b\avalue\a is "
      "specified, the alias \aname\a will be created or redefined.]" 
"[+?\balias\b is built-in to the shell as a declaration command so that "
      "field splitting and pathname expansion are not performed on "
      "the arguments.  Tilde expansion occurs on \avalue\a.  An alias "
      "definition only affects scripts read by the current shell "
      "environment.  It does not effect scripts run by this shell.]"
"[p?Causes the output to be in the form of alias commands that can be used "
      "as input to the shell to recreate the current aliases.]"
"[t?Used for tracked aliases.  These are aliases that connect a "
      "command name to the pathname of the command and are reset "
      "when the \bPATH\b variable is unset.  The tracked aliases feature is "
      "now obsolete.]"
"[x?Ignored, this option is obsolete.]"
"\n"
"\n[name[=value]...]\n"
"\n"
"[+EXIT STATUS?]{"
        "[+0?Successful completion.]"
        "[+>0?One or more \aname\a operands did not have an alias "
            "definition, or an error occurred.]"
"}"

"[+SEE ALSO?\bsh\b(1), \bunalias\b(1)]"
;

const char sh_optbuiltin[] =
"[-1c?\n@(#)$Id: builtin (AT&T Research) 1999-07-10 $\n]"
USAGE_LICENSE
"[+NAME?builtin - add, delete, or display shell built-ins]"
"[+DESCRIPTION?\bbuiltin\b can be used to add, delete, or display "
    "built-in commands in the current shell environment. A built-in command "
    "executes in the current shell process and can have side effects in the "
    "current shell. On most systems, the invocation time for built-in "
    "commands is one or two orders of magnitude less than commands that "
    "create a separate process.]"
"[+?For each \apathname\a specified, the basename of the pathname "
    "determines the name of the built-in. For each basename, the shell looks "
    "for a C level function in the current shell whose name is determined by "
    "prepending \bb_\b to the built-in name. If \apathname\a contains a "
    "\b/\b, then the built-in is bound to this pathname. A built-in bound to "
    "a pathname will only be executed if \apathname\a is the first "
    "executable found during a path search. Otherwise, built-ins are found "
    "prior to performing the path search.]"
"[+?If no \apathname\a operands are specified, then \bbuiltin\b displays "
    "the current list of built-ins, or just the special built-ins if \b-s\b "
    "is specified, on standard output. The full pathname for built-ins that "
    "are bound to pathnames are displayed.]"
"[+?Libraries containing built-ins can be specified with the \b-f\b "
    "option. If the library contains a function named \blib_init\b(), this "
    "function will be invoked with argument \b0\b when the library is "
    "loaded. The \blib_init\b() function can load built-ins by invoking an "
    "appropriate C level function. In this case there is no restriction on "
    "the C level function name.]"
"[+?The C level function will be invoked with three arguments. The first "
    "two are the same as \bmain\b() and the third one is a pointer.]"
"[+?\bbuiltin\b cannot be invoked from a restricted shell.]"
"[d?Deletes each of the specified built-ins. Special built-ins cannot be "
    "deleted.]"
"[f]:[lib?On systems with dynamic linking, \alib\a names a shared "
    "library to load and search for built-ins. Libraries are search for in "
    "\b$PATH\b and system dependent library directories. The system "
    "dependent shared library prefix and/or suffix may be omitted. Once a "
    "library is loaded, its symbols become available for the current and "
    "subsequent invocations of \bbuiltin\b. Multiple libraries can be "
    "specified with separate invocations of \bbuiltin\b. Libraries are "
    "searched in the reverse order in which they are specified.]"
"[s?Display only the special built-ins.]"
"\n"
"\n[pathname ...]\n"
"\n"
"[+EXIT STATUS?]{"
      "[+0?All \apathname\a operands and \b-f\b options processed "
      "successfully.]"
      "[+>0?An error occurred.]"
"}"
"[+SEE ALSO?\bwhence\b(1)]"
;

const char sh_optcd[] =
"[-1c?\n@(#)$Id: cd (AT&T Research) 1999-06-05 $\n]"
USAGE_LICENSE
"[+NAME?cd - change working directory ]"
"[+DESCRIPTION?\bcd\b changes the current working directory of the "
      "current shell environment.]"
"[+?In the first form with one operand, if \adirectory\a begins with "
      "\b/\b, or if the first component is \b.\b or \b..\b, the "
      "directory will be changed to this directory.  If directory is \b-\b, "
      "the directory will be changed to the last directory visited.  " 
      "Otherwise, if the \bCDPATH\b environment variable is set, \bcd\b "
      "searches for \adirectory\a relative to each directory named in "
      "the colon separated list of directories defined by \bCDPATH\b.  "
      "If \bCDPATH\b not set, \bcd\b changes to the directory specified "
      "by \adirectory\a.]"
"[+?In the second form, the first occurrence of the string \aold\a "
      "contained in the pathname of the present working directory "
      "is replaced by the string \anew\a and the resulting string "
      "is used as the directory to which to change.]"
"[+?When invoked without operands and when the \bHOME\b environment "
      "variable is set to a nonempty value,  the directory named by "
      "the \bHOME\b environment variable will be used.  If \bHOME\b "
      "is empty or unset, \bcd\b will fail.]"
"[+?When \bcd\b is successful, the \bPWD\b environment variable will be set "
      "to the name of an absolute pathname that does not contain any "
      "\b..\b components corresponding to the new directory.  The "
      "environment variable \bOLDPWD\b will be set to the previous "
      "value of \bPWD\b.  If the new directory is found by searching "
      "the directories named by \bCDPATH\b, or if \adirectory\a is \b-\b, "
      "or if the two operand form is used, the new value of \bPWD\b will be "
      "written to standard output.]"
"[+?If both \b-L\b and \b-P\b are specified, the last one specified will "
      "be used.  If neither \b-P\b or \b-L\b is specified then the "
      "behavior will be determined by the \bgetconf\b parameter "
      "\bPATH_RESOLVE\b.  If \bPATH_RESOLVE\b is \bphysical\b, "
      "then the behavior will be as if \b-P\b were specified.  Otherwise, "
      "the behavior will be as if  \b-L\b were specified.]"
"[L?Handle each pathname component \b..\b in a logical fashion by moving "
      "up one level by name in the present working directory.]"
"[P?The present working directory is first converted to an absolute pathname "
      "that does not contain symbolic link components and symbolic name "
      "components are expanded in the resulting directory name.]"
"\n"
"\n[directory]\n"
"old new\n"
"\n"
"[+EXIT STATUS?]{"
      "[+0?Directory successfully changed.]"
      "[+>0?An error occurred.]"
"}"
"[+SEE ALSO?\bpwd\b(1), \bgetconf\b(1)]"
;

const char sh_optcommand[] =
"[-1c?\n@(#)$Id: command (AT&T Research) 2003-08-01 $\n]"
USAGE_LICENSE
"[+NAME?command - execute a simple command]"
"[+DESCRIPTION?Without \b-v\b or \b-V\b,  \bcommand\b executes \acommand\a "
      "with arguments given by \aarg\a, suppressing the shell function lookup "
      "that normally occurs.  In addition, if \acommand\a is a special "
      "built-in command, then the special properties are removed so that "
      "failures will not cause the script that executes it to terminate.]"
"[+?With the \b-v\b or \b-V\b options, \bcommand\b is equivalent to the "
      "\bwhence\b(1) command.]"
"[p?Causes a default path to be searched rather than the one defined by the "
      "value of \bPATH\b.]"
"[v?Equivalent to \bwhence\b \acommand\a [\aarg\a ...]].]"
"[x?If \acommand\a fails because there are too many \aarg\as, it will be "
      "invoked multiple times with a subset of the arguments on each "
      "invocation.  Arguments that occur prior to the first word that expand "
      "to multiple arguments and arguments that occur after the last word "
      "that expands to multiple arguments will be passed on each invocation. "
      "The exit status will be the maximum invocation exit status.]"
"[V?Equivalent to \bwhence \b-v\b \acommand\a [\aarg\a ...]].]"
"\n"
"\n[command [arg ...]]\n"
"\n"
"[+EXIT STATUS?If \acommand\a is invoked, the exit status of \bcommand\b "
      "will be that of \acommand\a.  Otherwise, it will be one of "
      "the following:]{"
      "[+0?\bcommand\b completed successfully.]"
      "[+>0?\b-v\b or \b-V\b has been specified and an error occurred.]"
      "[+126?\acommand\a was found but could not be invoked.]"
      "[+127?\acommand\a could not be found.]"
"}"

"[+SEE ALSO?\bwhence\b(1), \bgetconf\b(1)]"
;

const char sh_optdot[]   =
"[-1c?@(#)$Id: \b.\b (AT&T Research) 2000-04-02 $\n]"
USAGE_LICENSE
"[+NAME?\b.\b - execute commands in the current environment]"
"[+DESCRIPTION?\b.\b is a special built-in command that executes commands "
      "from a function or a file in the current environment.]"
"[+?If \aname\a refers to a function defined with the \bfunction\b \aname\a "
      "syntax, the function executes in the current environment as "
      "if it had been defined with the \aname\a\b()\b syntax so that "
      "there is no scoping.  Otherwise, commands from the file defined "
      "by \aname\a are executed in the current environment.  Note that "
      "the complete script is read before it begins to execute so that "
      "any aliases defined in this script will not take effect until "
      "the script completes execution.]"
"[+?When \aname\a refers to a file, the \bPATH\b variable is searched "
      "for the file containing commands.  In this case execute permission "
      "is not required for \aname\a.]" 
"[+?If any \aarg\as are specified, these become the positional parameters "
      "for the duration of the function or script and are restored "
      "upon completion.]"
"\n"
"\n name [arg ...]\n"
"\n"
"[+EXIT STATUS?If \aname\a is found, then the exit status is that "
      "of the last command executed.  Otherwise, since this is a special "
      "built-in, an error will cause a non-interactive shell to exit with "
      "a non-zero exit status.  An interactive shell returns a non-zero exit "
      "status to indicate an error.]"

"[+SEE ALSO?\bcommand\b(1), \bksh\b(1)]"
;

#ifndef ECHOPRINT
    const char sh_optecho[]   = " [-n] [arg...]";
#endif /* !ECHOPRINT */

const char sh_opteval[] =
"[-1c?\n@(#)$Id: eval (AT&T Research) 1999-07-07 $\n]"
USAGE_LICENSE
"[+NAME?eval - create a shell command and process it]"
"[+DESCRIPTION?\beval\b is a shell special built-in command that constructs "
      "a command by concatenating the \aarg\as together, separating each "
      "with a space.  The resulting string is then taken as input to "
      "the shell and evaluated in the current environment.  Note that "
      "command words are expanded twice; once to construct \aarg\a, and "
      "again when the shell executes the constructed command.]"
"[+?It is not an error if \aarg\a is not given.]"
"\n"
"\n[arg...]\n"
"\n"
"[+EXIT STATUS?If \aarg\a is not specified, the exit status is \b0\b.  "
      "Otherwise, it is the exit status of the command defined by the "
      "\aarg\a operands.]"
"[+SEE ALSO?\bexec\b(1), \btrap\b(1), \b.\b(1)]"
;

const char sh_optexec[] =
"[-1c?\n@(#)$Id: exec (AT&T Research) 1999-07-10 $\n]"
USAGE_LICENSE
"[+NAME?exec - execute command, open/close and duplicate file descriptors]"
"[+DESCRIPTION?\bexec\b is a special built-in command that can be used to "
      "manipulate file descriptors or to replace the current shell "
      "with a new command.]"
"[+?If \acommand\a is specified, then the current shell process will be "
      "replaced by \acommand\a rather than running \acommand\a and waiting "
      "for it to complete.  Note that there is no need to use "
      "\bexec\b to enhance performance since the shell implicitly "
      "uses the exec mechanism internally whenever possible.]"
"[+?If no operands are specified, \bexec\b can be used to open or "
      "close files, or to manipulate file descriptors from \b0\b to "
      "\b9\b in the current shell environment using the standard "
      "redirection mechanism available with all commands.  The " 
      "close-on-exec flags will be set on file descriptor numbers "
      "greater than \b2\b that are opened this way so that they "
      "will be closed when another program is invoked.]"
"[+?Because \bexec\b is a special command, any failure will cause the "
      "script that invokes it to exit.  This can be prevented by "
      "invoking \bexec\b from the \bcommand\b utility.]"
"[+?\bexec\b cannot be invoked from a restricted shell to create "
      "files or to open a file for writing or appending.]"
"[c?Clear all environment variables before executions except variable "
      "assignments that are part of the current \bexec\b command.]"
"[a]:[name?\bargv[0]]\b will be set to \aname\a for \acommand\a]"
"\n"
"\n[command [arg ...]]\n"
"\n"
"[+EXIT STATUS?If \acommand\a is specified, \bexec\b does not return.  "
      "Otherwise, the exit status is one of the following:]{"
      "[+0?All I/O redirections were successful.]"
      "[+>0?An error occurred.]"
"}"
"[+SEE ALSO?\bcommand\b(1), \beval\b(1)]"
;


const char sh_optexit[] =
"[-1c?\n@(#)$Id: exit (AT&T Research) 1999-07-07 $\n]"
USAGE_LICENSE
"[+NAME?exit - exit the current shell]"
"[+DESCRIPTION?\bexit\b is shell special built-in that causes the "
      "shell that invokes it to exit.  Before exiting the shell, if the "
      "\bEXIT\b trap is set it will be invoked.]"
"[+?If \an\a is given, it will be used to set the exit status.]"
"\n"
"\n[n]\n"
"\n"
"[+EXIT STATUS?If \an\a is specified, the exit status is the least significant "
      "eight bits of the value of \an\a.  Otherwise, the exit status is the "
      "exit status of preceding command.  When invoked inside a trap, the "
      "preceding command means the command that invoked the trap.]"
"[+SEE ALSO?\bbreak\b(1), \breturn\b(1)]"
;

const char sh_optexport[] =
"[-1c?\n@(#)$Id: export (AT&T Research) 1999-07-07 $\n]"
USAGE_LICENSE
"[+NAME?export - set export attribute on variables]"
"[+DESCRIPTION?\bexport\b sets the export attribute on each of "
      "the variables specified by \aname\a which causes them "
      "to be in the environment of subsequently executed commands.  "
      "If \b=\b\avalue\a is specified, the variable \aname\a is "
      "set to \avalue\a.]"
"[+?If no \aname\as are specified then the names and values of all "
      "exported variables are written to standard output.]" 
"[+?\bexport\b is built-in to the shell as a declaration command so that "
      "field splitting and pathname expansion are not performed on "
      "the arguments.  Tilde expansion occurs on \avalue\a.]"
"[p?Causes the output to be in the form of \bexport\b commands that can be "
      "used as input to the shell to recreate the current exports.]"
"\n"
"\n[name[=value]...]\n"
"\n"
"[+EXIT STATUS?]{"
        "[+0?Successful completion.]"
        "[+>0?An error occurred.]"
"}"

"[+SEE ALSO?\bsh\b(1), \btypeset\b(1)]"
;

const char sh_optgetopts[] =
":[-1c?\n@(#)$Id: getopts (AT&T Research) 2005-01-01 $\n]"
"[-author?Glenn Fowler <gsf@research.att.com>]"
USAGE_LICENSE
"[+NAME?\f?\f - parse utility options]"
"[+DESCRIPTION?The \bgetopts\b utility can be used to retrieve options and "
  "arguments from a list of arguments given by \aargs\a or the positional "
  "parameters if \aargs\a is omitted.  It can also generate usage messages "
  "and a man page for the command based on the information in \aoptstring\a.]"
"[+?Each time it is invoked, the \bgetopts\b utility places the value "
  "of the next option in the shell variable specified by the \aname\a "
  "operand and the index of the next argument to be processed in the "
  "shell variable \bOPTIND\b.  When the shell is invoked \bOPTIND\b "
  "is initialized to \b1\b.  When an option requires or permits an option "
  "argument, \bgetopts\b places the option argument in the shell "
  "variable \bOPTARG\b. Otherwise \bOPTARG\b is set to \b1\b when the "
  "option is set and \b0\b when the option is unset.]"
"[+?The \aoptstring\a string consists of alpha-numeric characters, "
  "the special characters +, -, ?, :, and <space>, or character groups "
  "enclosed in [...]].  Character groups may be nested in {...}. "
  "Outside of a [...]] group, a single new-line followed by zero or "
  "more blanks is ignored.  One or more blank lines separate the "
  "options from the command argument synopsis.]"
"[+?Each [...]] group consists of an optional label, "
  "optional attributes separated by :, and an "
  "optional description string following ?.  The characters from the ? "
  "to the end of the next ]] are ignored for option parsing and short "
  "usage messages.  They are used for generating verbose help or man pages. "
  "The : character may not appear in the label. "
  "The ? character must be specified as ?? in the label and the ]] character "
  "must be specified as ]]]] in the description string. "
  "Text between two \\b (backspace) characters indicates "
  "that the text should be emboldened when displayed. "
  "Text between two \\a (bell) characters indicates that the text should "
  "be emphasized or italicized when displayed. "
  "Text between two \\v (vertical tab) characters indicates "
  "that the text should displayed in a fixed width font. "
  "Text between two \\f (formfeed) characters will be replaced by the "
    "output from the shell function whose name is that of the enclosed text.]"
"[+?All output from this interface is written to the standard error.]"
"[+?There are several group types:]{"
  "[+1.?A group of the form "
    "[-[\aversion\a]][\aflag\a[\anumber\a]]]]...[?\atext\a]]]] "
    "appearing as the first group enables the extended interface. \aversion\a "
    "specifies the interface version, currently \b1\b. The latest version is "
    "assumed if \aversion\a is omitted. Future enhancements "
    "may increment \aversion\a, but all versions will be supported. \atext\a "
    "typically specifies an SCCS or CVS identification string. Zero or more "
    "\aflags\a with optional \anumber\a values may be specified to control "
    "option parsing. "
    "The flags are:]{"
      "[++?Arguments beginning with + are considered options.]"
      "[+c?Cache this \aoptstring\a for multiple passes. Used to optimize "
      "builtins that may be called many times within the same process.]"
      "[+i?Ignore this \aoptstring\a when generating help. Used when "
      "combining \aoptstring\a values from multiple passes.]"
      "[+l?Display only \alongname\a options in help messages.]"
      "[+n?Associate -\anumber\a and +\anumber\a options with the first "
        "option with numeric arguments.]"
      "[+o?The \b-\b option character prefix is optional (supports "
        "obsolete \bps\b(1) option syntax.)]"
      "[+p?\anumber\a specifies the number of \b-\b characters that must "
      "prefix long option names. The default is \b2\b; \b0\b, \b1\b or "
      "\b2\b are accepted (e.g., \bp0\b for \bdd\b(1) and \bp1\b for "
      "\bfind\b(1).)]"
      "[+s?\anumber\a specifies the \b--??man\b section number, "
        "\b1\b by default.]"
  "}"
  "[+2.?An option specification of the form "
    "[\aoption\a[!]][=\anumber\a]][:\alongname\a]][?\atext\a]]]]. In this "
    "case the first field is the option character; this is the value returned "
    "in the \aname\a operand when the option is matched.  If there is no "
    "option character then a two or more digit number should be specified. "
    "This number will be returned as the value of the \aname\a operand if the "
    "long option is matched. If \aoption\a is followed by \b!\b then the option "
    "character sense is the inverse of the longname sense. For options that do "
    "not take values \bOPTARG\b will be set to \b0\b for \b!\b inverted option "
    "characters and \b1\b otherwise. =\anumber\a optionally specifies a number to "
    "be returned in the \aname\a operand instead of the option character. A "
    "longname is specified by \b--\b\alongname\a and is matched by the shortest "
    "non-ambiguous prefix of all long options. * in the \alongname\a field "
    "indicates that only characters up to that point need to match, provided "
    "any additional characters match exactly. The enclosing [ and ]] can be "
    "omitted for an option that does not have a longname or descriptive text.]"
  "[+3.?An option argument specification. "
    "Options that take arguments can be followed by : (string value) or # "
    "(numeric value) and an option argument specification.  An option argument "
    "specification consists of the option argument name as field 1. "
    "The remaining \b:\b separated fields are a type name and zero or more of "
    "the special attribute words \blistof\b, \boneof\b, and \bignorecase\b. "
    "A default option value may be specified in the final field as "
    "\b:=\b\adefault\a. The option argument specification may be followed "
    "by a list of option value descriptions enclosed in braces. "
    "A long option that takes an argument is specified as "
    "\b--\b\alongname\a=\avalue\a. If the : or # is followed by ? then the "
    "option argument is optional. If only the option character form is "
    "specified then the optional argument value is not set if the next "
    "argument starts with - or +.]"
  "[+4.?A option value description.]"
  "[+5.?A argument specification. A list of valid option argument values "
    "can be specified by enclosing them inside a {...} following "
    "the option argument specification.  Each of the permitted "
    "values can be specified with a [...]] containing the "
    "value followed by a description.]"
  "[+6.?A group of the form [+\\n...]] will display the characters "
    "representing ... in fixed with font without adding line breaks.]"
  "[+7.?A group of the form [+\aname\a?\atext\a]] specifies a section "
    "\aname\a with descriptive \atext\a. If \aname\a is omitted then "
    "\atext\a is placed in a new paragraph.]"
  "[+8.?A group of the form [-\aname\a?\atext\a]] specifies entries "
    "for the \bIMPLEMENTATION\b section.]"
"}"
"[+?A leading : character in \aoptstring\a "
  "affects the way errors are handled.  If an option character or longname "
  "argument not specified in \aoptstring\a is encountered when processing "
  "options, the shell variable whose name is \aname\a will be set to the ? "
  "character.  The shell variable \bOPTARG\b will be set to "
  "the character found.  If an option argument is missing or has an invalid "
  "value, then \aname\a will be set to the : character and the shell variable "
  "\bOPTARG\b will be set to the option character found. "
  "Without the leading :, \aname\a will be set to the ? character, \bOPTARG\b "
  "will be unset, and an error message will be written to standard error "
  "when errors are encountered.]"
"[+?A leading + character or a + following a leading : in \aoptstring\a "
  "specifies that arguments beginning with + will also be considered options.]"
"[+?The end of options occurs when:]{"
      "[+1.?The special argument \b--\b is encountered.]"
      "[+2.?An argument that does not begin with a \b-\b is encountered.]"
      "[+3.?A help argument is specified.]"
      "[+4.?An error is encountered.]"
"}"
"[+?If \bOPTIND\b is set to the value \b1\b, a new set of arguments "
  "can be used.]"
"[+?\bgetopts\b can also be used to generate help messages containing command "
  "usage and detailed descriptions.  Specify \aargs\a as:]"
"{ "
      "[+-???To generate a usage synopsis.]"
      "[+--?????To generate a verbose usage message.]"
      "[+--????man?To generate a formatted man page.]"
      "[+--????api?To generate an easy to parse usage message.]"
      "[+--????html?To generate a man page in \bhtml\b format.]"
      "[+--????nroff?To generate a man page in \bnroff\b format.]"
      "[+--????usage?List the current \aoptstring\a.]"
      "[+--??????\aname\a?List \bversion=\b\an\a, \an\a>0, "
        "if the option \aname\a is recognized by \bgetopts\b.]"
"}"
"[+?When the end of options is encountered, \bgetopts\b exits with a "
  "non-zero return value and the variable \bOPTIND\b is set to the "
  "index of the first non-option argument.]"
"a:[name?Use \aname\a instead of the command name in usage messages.]"
"\n"
"\nopstring name [args...]\n"
"\n"
"[+EXIT STATUS]{"
      "[+0?An option specified was found.]"
      "[+1?An end of options was encountered.]"
      "[+2?A usage or information message was generated.]"
"}"
;

const char sh_optbg[] =
"[-1c?@(#)$Id: bg (AT&T Research) 2000-04-02 $\n]"
USAGE_LICENSE
"[+NAME?bg - resume jobs in the background]"
"[+DESCRIPTION?\bbg\b places the given \ajob\as into the background "
      "and sends them a \bCONT\b signal to start them running.]"
"[+?If \ajob\a is omitted, the most recently started or stopped "
      "background job is resumed or continued in the background.]"
"[+?Each \ajob\a can be specified as one of the following:]{"
      "[+\anumber\a?\anumber\a refers to a process id.]"
      "[+-\anumber\a?\anumber\a refers to a process group id.]"
      "[+%\anumber\a?\anumber\a refer to a job number.]"
      "[+%\astring\a?Refers to a job whose name begins with \astring\a.]"
      "[+%??\astring\a?Refers to a job whose name contains \astring\a.]"
      "[+%+ \bor\b %%?Refers to the current job.]"
      "[+%-?Refers to the previous job.]"
"}"
"\n"
"\n[job ...]\n"
"\n"
"[+EXIT STATUS?]{"
      "[+0?If all background jobs are started.]"
      "[+>0?If one more jobs does not exist or there are no background "
            "jobs.]" 
"}"

"[+SEE ALSO?\bwait\b(1), \bfg\b(1), \bdisown\b(1), \bjobs\b(1)]"
;

const char sh_optfg[] =
"[-1c?@(#)$Id: fg (AT&T Research) 2000-04-02 $\n]"
USAGE_LICENSE
"[+NAME?fg - move jobs to the foreground]"
"[+DESCRIPTION?\bfg\b places the given \ajob\as into the foreground "
      "in sequence and sends them a \bCONT\b signal to start each running.]"
"[+?If \ajob\a is omitted, the most recently started or stopped "
      "background job is moved to the foreground.]"
"[+?Each \ajob\a can be specified as one of the following:]{"
      "[+\anumber\a?\anumber\a refers to a process id.]"
      "[+-\anumber\a?\anumber\a refers to a process group id.]"
      "[+%\anumber\a?\anumber\a refer to a job number.]"
      "[+%\astring\a?Refers to a job whose name begins with \astring\a.]"
      "[+%??\astring\a?Refers to a job whose name contains \astring\a.]"
      "[+%+ \bor\b %%?Refers to the current job.]"
      "[+%-?Refers to the previous job.]"
"}"
"\n"
"\n[job ...]\n"
"\n"
"[+EXIT STATUS?If \bfg\b brings one or more jobs into the foreground, "
      "the exit status of \bfg\b  will be that of the last \ajob\a.  "
      "If one or more jobs does not exist or has completed, \bfg\b will "
      "return a non-zero exit status.]"
"}"

"[+SEE ALSO?\bwait\b(1), \bbg\b(1), \bjobs\b(1)]"
;

const char sh_optdisown[] =
"[-1c?@(#)$Id: disown (AT&T Research) 2000-04-02 $\n]"
USAGE_LICENSE
"[+NAME?disown - disassociate a job with the current shell]"
"[+DESCRIPTION?\bdisown\b prevents the current shell from sending "
      "a \bHUP\b signal to each of the given \ajob\as when "
      "the current shell terminates a login session.]"
"[+?If \ajob\a is omitted, the most recently started or stopped "
      "background job is used.]"
"[+?Each \ajob\a can be specified as one of the following:]{"
      "[+\anumber\a?\anumber\a refers to a process id.]"
      "[+-\anumber\a?\anumber\a refers to a process group id.]"
      "[+%\anumber\a?\anumber\a refer to a job number.]"
      "[+%\astring\a?Refers to a job whose name begins with \astring\a.]"
      "[+%??\astring\a?Refers to a job whose name contains \astring\a.]"
      "[+%+ \bor\b %%?Refers to the current job.]"
      "[+%-?Refers to the previous job.]"
"}"
"\n"
"\n[job ...]\n"
"\n"
"[+EXIT STATUS?]{"
      "[+0?If all jobs are successfully disowned.]"
      "[+>0?If one more \ajob\as does not exist.]"
"}"

"[+SEE ALSO?\bwait\b(1), \bbg\b(1), \bjobs\b(1)]"
;

const char sh_optjobs[] =
"[-1c?@(#)$Id: jobs (AT&T Research) 2000-04-02 $\n]"
USAGE_LICENSE
"[+NAME?jobs - display status of jobs]"
"[+DESCRIPTION?\bjobs\b displays information about specified \ajob\as "
      "that were started by the current shell environment on standard "
      "output.  The information contains the job number enclosed in "
      "[...]], the status, and the command line that started the job.]"
"[+?If \ajob\a is omitted, \bjobs\b displays the status of all stopped jobs, "
      "background jobs, and all jobs whose status has changed since last "
      "reported by the shell.]"
"[+?When \bjobs\b reports the termination status of a job, the "
      "shell removes the jobs from the list of known jobs in "
      "the current shell environment.]"
"[+?Each \ajob\a can be specified as one of the following:]{"
      "[+\anumber\a?\anumber\a refers to a process id.]"
      "[+-\anumber\a?\anumber\a refers to a process group id.]"
      "[+%\anumber\a?\anumber\a refer to a job number.]"
      "[+%\astring\a?Refers to a job whose name begins with \astring\a.]"
      "[+%??\astring\a?Refers to a job whose name contains \astring\a.]"
      "[+%+ \bor\b %%?Refers to the current job.]"
      "[+%-?Refers to the previous job.]"
"}"
"[l?\bjobs\b displays process id's after the job number in addition "
      "to the usual information]"
"[n?Only the jobs whose status has changed since the last prompt "
      "is displayed.]"
"[p?The process group leader id's for the specified jobs are displayed.]"
"\n"
"\n[job ...]\n"
"\n"
"[+EXIT STATUS?]{"
      "[+0?The information for each job is written to standard output.]"
      "[+>0?One or more jobs does not exist.]"
"}"

"[+SEE ALSO?\bwait\b(1), \bps\b(1), \bfg\b(1), \bbg\b(1)]"
;

const char sh_opthist[] = 
"[-1cn?@(#)$Id: hist (AT&T Research) 2000-04-02 $\n]"
USAGE_LICENSE
"[+NAME?\f?\f - process command history list]"
"[+DESCRIPTION?\b\f?\f\b lists, edits, or re-executes, commands  "
      "previously entered into the current shell environment.]"
"[+?The command history list references commands by number. The first number "
      "in the list is selected arbitrarily.  The relationship of a number "
      "to its command does not change during a login session.  When the "
      "number reaches 32767 the number wraps around to 1 but "
      "maintains the ordering.]"
"[+?When commands are edited (when the \b-l\b option is not specified), the "
      "resulting lines will be entered at the end of the history list and "
      "then reexecuted by the current shell.  The \b\f?\f\b command that "
      "caused the editing will not be entered into the history list.  If the "
      "editor returns a non-zero exit status, this will suppress the "
      "entry into the history list and the command reexecution.  Command "
      "line variable assignments and redirections affect both the \f?\f "
      "command and the commands that are reexecuted.]"
"[+?\afirst\a and \alast\a define the range of commands. \afirst\a and "
            "\alast\a can be one of the following:]{"
            "[+\anumber\a?A positive number representing a command "
                  "number.  A \b+\b sign can precede \anumber\a.]"
            "[+-\anumber\a?A negative number representing a command "
                  "that was executed \anumber\a commands previously. "
                  "For example, \b-1\b is the previous command.]"
            "[+\astring\a?\astring\a indicates the most recently "
                  "entered command that begins with \astring\a. "
                  "\astring\a should not contain an \b=\b.]"
      "}"
"[+?If \afirst\a is omitted, the previous command is used, unless \b-l\b "
      "is specified, in which case it will default to \b-16\b and \alast\a "
      "will default to \b-1\b.]"
"[+?If \afirst\a is specified and \alast\a is omitted, then \alast\a will "
      "default to \afirst\a unless \b-l\b is specified in which case "
      "it will default to \b-1\b.]"
"[+?If no editor is specified, then the editor specfied by the \bHISTEDIT\b "
      "variable will be used if set, or the \bFCEDIT\b variable will be "
      "used if set, otherwise, \bed\b will be used.]"
"[e]:[editor?\aeditor\a specifies the editor to use to edit the history "
      "command.   A value of \b-\b for \aeditor\a is equivalent to "
      "specifiying the \b-s\b option.]"
"[l?List the commands rather than editing and reexecuting them.]"
"[N]#[num?Start at \anum\a commands back.]" 
"[n?Suppress the command numbers when the commands are listed.]"
#if SHOPT_HISTEXPAND
"[p?Writes the result of history expansion for each operand to standard "
      "output.  All other options are ignored.]"
#endif
"[r?Reverse the order of the commands.]"
"[s?Reexecute the command without invoking an editor.  In this case "
      "an operand of the form \aold\a\b=\b\anew\a can be specified "
      "to change the first occurrence of the string \aold\a in the "
      "command to \anew\a before reexecuting the command.]"

"\n"
"\n[first [last] ]\n"
"\n"
"[+EXIT STATUS?If a command is reexecuted, the exit status is that of "
      "the command that gets reexecuted.  Otherwise, it is one of the "
      "following:]{"
      "[+0?Successfully completion of the listing.]"
      "[+>0?An error occurred.]" 
"}"

"[+SEE ALSO?\bksh\b(1), \bsh\b(1), \bed\b(1)]"
;

const char sh_optkill[]  = 
"[-1c?\n@(#)$Id: kill (AT&T Research) 1999-06-17 $\n]"
USAGE_LICENSE
"[+NAME?kill - terminate or signal process]"
"[+DESCRIPTION?With the first form in which \b-l\b is not specified, "
      "\bkill\b sends a signal to one or more processes specified by "
      "\ajob\a.  This normally terminates the processes unless the signal "
      "is being caught or ignored.]"
"[+?A \ajob\a can be specified as one of the following:]{"
      "[+\anumber\a?\anumber\a refers to a process id.]"
      "[+-\anumber\a?\anumber\a refers to a process group id.]"
      "[+%\anumber\a?\anumber\a refer to a job number.]"
      "[+%\astring\a?Refers to a job whose name begins with \astring\a.]"
      "[+%??\astring\a?Refers to a job whose name contains \astring\a.]"
      "[+%+ \bor\b %%?Refers to the current job.]"
      "[+%-?Refers to the previous job.]"
"}"
"[+?If the signal is not specified with either the \b-n\b or the \b-s\b  "
      "option, the \bSIGTERM\b signal is used.]"
"[+?If \b-l\b is specified, and no \aarg\a is specified, then \bkill\b "
      "writes the list of signals to standard output.  Otherwise, \aarg\a "
      "can be either a signal name, or a number representing either a "
      "signal number or exit status for a process that was terminated "
      "due to a signal.  If a name is given the corresponding signal "
      "number will be written to standard output.  If a number is given "
      "the corresponding signal name will be written to standard output.]"
"[l?List signal names or signal numbers rather than sending signals as "
      "described above.  "
      "The \b-n\b and \b-s\b options cannot be specified.]"
"[n]#[signum?Specify a signal number to send.  Signal numbers are not "
      "portable across platforms, except for the following:]{"
            "[+0?No signal]"
            "[+1?\bHUP\b]"
            "[+2?\bINT\b]"
            "[+3?\bQUIT\b]"
            "[+6?\bABRT\b]"
            "[+9?\bKILL\b]"
            "[+14?\bALRM\b]"
            "[+15?\bTERM\b]"
      "}"
"[s]:[signame?Specify a signal name to send.  The signal names are derived "
      "from their names in \b<signal.h>\b without the \bSIG\b prefix and "
      "are case insensitive.  \bkill -l\b will generate the list of "
      "signals on the current platform.]"
"\n"
"\njob ...\n"
" -l [arg ...]\n"
"\n"
"[+EXIT STATUS?]{"
      "[+0?At least one matching process was found for each \ajob\a "
      "operand, and the specified signal was successfully sent to at "
      "least one matching process.]"
      "[+>0?An error occurred.]"
"}"
"[+SEE ALSO?\bps\b(1), \bjobs\b(1), \bkill\b(2), \bsignal\b(2)]"
;

const char sh_optlet[]  =
"[-1c?@(#)$Id: let (AT&T Research) 2000-04-02 $\n]"
USAGE_LICENSE
"[+NAME?let - evaluate arithmetic expressions]"
"[+DESCRIPTION?\blet\b evaluates each \aexpr\a in the current "
      "shell environment as an arithmetic expression using ANSI C "
      "syntax.  Variables names are shell variables and they "
      "are recursively evaluated as arithmetic expressions to "
      "get numerical values.]"
"[+?\blet\b has been made obsolete by the \b((\b...\b))\b syntax "
      "of \bksh\b(1) which does not require quoting of the operators "
      "to pass them as command arguments.]"
"\n"
"\n[expr ...]\n"
"\n"
"[+EXIT STATUS?]{"
      "[+0?The last \aexpr\a evaluates to a non-zero value.]"
      "[+>0?The last \aexpr\a evaluates to \b0\b or an error occurred.]"
"}"

"[+SEE ALSO?\bexpr\b(1), \btest\b(1), \bksh\b(1)]"
;

const char sh_optprint[] =
"[-1c?\n@(#)$Id: print (AT&T Research) 2008-11-26 $\n]"
USAGE_LICENSE
"[+NAME?print - write arguments to standard output]"
"[+DESCRIPTION?By default, \bprint\b writes each \astring\a operand to "
      "standard output and appends a newline character.]"  
"[+?Unless, the \b-r\b or \b-f\b option is specified, each \b\\\b "
      "character in each \astring\a operand is processed specially as "
      "follows:]{"
            "[+\\a?Alert character.]"
            "[+\\b?Backspace character.]"
            "[+\\c?Terminate output without appending newline.  The "
                  "remaining \astring\a operands are ignored.]"
            "[+\\f?Formfeed character.]"
            "[+\\n?Newline character.]"
            "[+\\t?Tab character.]"
            "[+\\v?Vertical tab character.]"
            "[+\\\\?Backslash character.]"
            "[+\\E?Escape character (ASCII octal 033).]"
            "[+\\0\ax\a?The 8-bit character whose ASCII code is the "
                  "1-, 2-, or 3-digit octal number \ax\a.]"
      "}"
"[+?If both \b-e\b and \b-r\b are specified, the last one specified is "
      "the one that is used.]"
"[+?When the \b-f\b option is specified and there are more \astring\a "
      "operands than format specifiers, the format string is "
      "reprocessed from the beginning.  If there are fewer \astring\a "
      "operands than format specifiers, then outputting will end "
      "at the first unneeded format specifier.]" 
"[e?Unless \b-f\b is specified, process \b\\\b sequences in each \astring\a "
      "operand as described above. This is the default behavior.]"
"[n?Do not append a new-line character to the output.]"
"[f]:[format?Write the \astring\a arguments using the format string "
      "\aformat\a and do not append a new-line.  See \bprintf\b for "
      "details on how to specify \aformat\a.]"
"[p?Write to the current co-process instead of standard output.]"
"[r?Do not process \b\\\b sequences in each \astring\a operand as described "
      "above.]"
"[s?Write the output as an entry in the shell history file instead of "
      "standard output.]"
"[u]:[fd:=1?Write to file descriptor number \afd\a instead of standard output.]"
"[v?Treat each \astring\a as a variable name and write the value in \b%B\b "
      "format.  Cannot be used with \b-f\b.]"
"[C?Treat each \astring\a as a variable name and write the value in \b%#B\b "
      "format.  Cannot be used with \b-f\b.]"
"\n"
"\n[string ...]\n"
"\n"
"[+EXIT STATUS?]{"
      "[+0?Successful completion.]"
      "[+>0?An error occurred.]"
"}"
"[+SEE ALSO?\becho\b(1), \bprintf\b(1), \bread\b(1)]"
;

const char sh_optprintf[] =
"[-1c?\n@(#)$Id: printf (AT&T Research) 2009-02-02 $\n]"
USAGE_LICENSE
"[+NAME?printf - write formatted output]"
"[+DESCRIPTION?\bprintf\b writes each \astring\a operand to "
      "standard output using \aformat\a to control the output format.]"  
"[+?The \aformat\a operands supports the full range of ANSI C formatting "
      "specifiers plus the following additional specifiers:]{"
      "[+%b?Each character in the \astring\a operand is processed "
            "specially as follows:]{"
                  "[+\\a?Alert character.]"
                  "[+\\b?Backspace character.]"
                  "[+\\c?Terminate output without appending newline. "
                      "The remaining \astring\a operands are ignored.]"
                  "[+\\f?Formfeed character.]"
                  "[+\\n?Newline character.]"
                  "[+\\t?Tab character.]"
                  "[+\\v?Vertical tab character.]"
                  "[+\\\\?Backslash character.]"
                  "[+\\E?Escape character (ASCII octal 033).]"
                  "[+\\0\ax\a?The 8-bit character whose ASCII code is "
                        "the 1-, 2-, or 3-digit octal number \ax\a.]"
            "}"
      "[+%q?Output \astring\a quoted in a manner that it can be read in "
            "by the shell to get back the same string.  However, empty "
            "strings resulting from missing \astring\a operands will "
            "not be quoted.]"
      "[+%B?Treat the argument as a variable name and output the value "
            "without converting it to a string.  This is most useful for "
            "variables of type \b-b\b.]"
      "[+%H?Output \astring\a with characters \b<\b, \b&\b, \b>\b, "
            "\b\"\b, and non-printable characters properly escaped for "
            "use in HTML and XML documents.]"
      "[+%P?Treat \astring\a as an extended regular expression and  "
            "convert it to a shell pattern.]"
      "[+%R?Treat \astring\a as an shell pattern expression and  "
            "convert it to an extended regular expression.]"
      "[+%T?Treat \astring\a as a date/time string and format it.  The "
            "\bT\b can be preceded by \b(\b\adformat\a\b)\b, where "
            "\adformat\a is a date format as defined by the \bdate\b "
            "command.]"
      "[+%Z?Output a byte whose value is \b0\b.]"
"}"
"[+?When performing conversions of \astring\a to satisfy a numeric "
      "format specifier, if the first character of \astring\a "
      "is \b\"\b or \b'\b, then the value will be the numeric value "
      "in the underlying code set of the character following the "
      "\b\"\b or \b'\b.  Otherwise, \astring\a is treated like a shell "
      "arithmetic expression and evaluated.]"
"[+?If a \astring\a operand cannot be completely converted into a value "
      "appropriate for that format specifier, an error will occur, "
      "but remaining \astring\a operands will continue to be processed.]"
"[+?In addition to the format specifier extensions, the following "
      "extensions of ANSI-C are permitted in format specifiers:]{"
      "[+-?The escape sequences \b\\E\b and \b\\e\b expand to the escape "
            "character which is octal \b033\b in ASCII.]"
      "[+-?The escape sequence \b\\c\b\ax\a expands to Control-\ax\a.]"
      "[+-?The escape sequence \b\\C[.\b\aname\a\b.]]\b expands to "
            "the collating element \aname\a.]"
      "[+-?The escape sequence \b\\x{\b\ahex\a\b}\b expands to the "
            "character corresponding to the hexidecimal value \ahex\a.]"
      "[+-?The format modifier flag \b=\b can be used to center a field to "
            "a specified width.]"
      "[+-?The format modifier flag \bL\b can be used with the \bc\b and "
            "\bs\b formats to treat precision as character width instead "
            "of byte count.]"
      "[+-?Each of the integral format specifiers can have a third "
            "modifier after width and precision that specifies the "
            "base of the conversion from 2 to 64.  In this case the "
            "\b#\b modifier will cause \abase\a\b#\b to be prepended to "
            "the value.]"
      "[+-?The \b#\b modifier can be used with the \bd\b specifier when "
            "no base is specified cause the output to be written in units "
            "of \b1000\b with a suffix of one of \bk M G T P E\b.]"
      "[+-?The \b#\b modifier can be used with the \bi\b specifier to "
            "cause the output to be written in units of \b1024\b with "
            "a suffix of one of \bKi Mi Gi Ti Pi Ei\b.]"
      "}"
"[+?If there are more \astring\a operands than format specifiers, the "
      "\aformat\a string is reprocessed from the beginning.  If there are "
      "fewer \astring\a operands than format specifiers, then string "
      "specifiers will be treated as if empty strings were supplied, "
      "numeric conversions will be treated as if 0 were supplied, and "
      "time conversions will be treated as if \bnow\b were supplied.]"
"[+?\bprintf\b is equivalent to \bprint -f\b which allows additional "
      "options to be specified.]"
"\n"
"\nformat [string ...]\n"
"\n"
"[+EXIT STATUS?]{"
      "[+0?Successful completion.]"
      "[+>0?An error occurred.]"
"}"
"[+SEE ALSO?\bdate\b(1), \bprint\b(1), \bread\b(1)]"
;

const char sh_optpwd[] =
"[-1c?\n@(#)$Id: pwd (AT&T Research) 1999-06-07 $\n]"
USAGE_LICENSE
"[+NAME?pwd - write working directory name]"
"[+DESCRIPTION?\bpwd\b writes an absolute pathname of the current working "
      "directory to standard output.   An absolute pathname is a "
      "pathname that begins with \b/\b that does not contains any "
      "\b.\b  or \b..\b components.]"
"[+?If both \b-L\b and \b-P\b are specified, the last one specified will "
      "be used.  If neither \b-P\b or \b-L\b is specified then the "
      "behavior will be determined by the \bgetconf\b parameter "
      "\bPATH_RESOLVE\b.  If \bPATH_RESOLVE\b is \bphysical\b, "
      "then the behavior will be as if \b-P\b were specified.  Otherwise, "
      "the behavior will be as if  \b-L\b were specified.]"
"[L?The absolute pathname may contains symbolic link components.  This is "
      "the default.]"
"[P?The absolute pathname will not contain any symbolic link components.]"
"[+EXIT STATUS?]{"
      "[+0?Successful completion.]"
      "[+>0?An error occurred.]"
"}"
"[+SEE ALSO?\bcd\b(1), \bgetconf\b(1)]"
;

const char sh_optread[] =
"[-1c?\n@(#)$Id: read (AT&T Research) 2006-12-19 $\n]"
USAGE_LICENSE
"[+NAME?read - read a line from standard input]"
"[+DESCRIPTION?\bread\b reads a line from standard input and breaks it "
      "into fields using the characters in value of the \bIFS\b variable "
      "as separators.  The escape character, \b\\\b, is used to remove "
      "any special meaning for the next character and for line continuation "
      "unless the \b-r\b option is specified.]"
"[+?If there are more variables than fields, the remaining variables are "
      "set to empty strings.  If there are fewer variables than fields, "
      "the leftover fields and their intervening separators are assigned "
      "to the last variable.  If no \avar\a is specified then the variable "
      "\bREPLY\b is used.]"
"[+?When \avar\a has the binary attribute and \b-n\b or \b-N\b is specified, "
      "the bytes that are read are stored directly into \bvar\b.]"
"[+?If you specify \b?\b\aprompt\a after the first \avar\a, then \bread\b "
      "will display \aprompt\a on standard error when standard input "
      "is a terminal or pipe.]"
"[A?Unset \avar\a and then create an indexed array containing each field in "
      "the line starting at index 0.]"
"[C?Unset \avar\a and read  \avar\a as a compound variable.]"
"[d]:[delim?Read until delimiter \adelim\a instead of to the end of line.]"
"[p?Read from the current co-process instead of standard input.  An end of "
      "file causes \bread\b to disconnect the co-process so that another "
      "can be created.]"
"[r?Do not treat \b\\\b specially when processing the input line.]"
"[s?Save a copy of the input as an entry in the shell history file.]"
"[u]#[fd:=0?Read from file descriptor number \afd\a instead of standard input.]"
"[t]:[timeout?Specify a timeout \atimeout\a in seconds when reading from "
      "a terminal or pipe.]"
"[n]#[nchar?Read at most \anchar\a characters.  For binary fields \asize\a "
      "will be in bytes.]"
"[N]#[nchar?Read exactly \anchar\a characters.  For binary fields \asize\a "
      "will be in bytes.]"
"[v?When reading from a terminal the value of the first variable is displayed "
      "and used as a default value.]"
"\n"
"\n[var?prompt] [var ...]\n"
"\n"
"[+EXIT STATUS?]{"
      "[+0? Successful completion.]"
      "[+>0?End of file was detected or an error occurred.]"
"}"
"[+SEE ALSO?\bprint\b(1), \bprintf\b(1), \bcat\b(1)]"
;

const char sh_optreadonly[] =
"[-1c?\n@(#)$Id: readonly (AT&T Research) 2008-06-16 $\n]"
USAGE_LICENSE
"[+NAME?readonly - set readonly attribute on variables]"
"[+DESCRIPTION?\breadonly\b sets the readonly attribute on each of "
      "the variables specified by \aname\a which prevents their "
      "values from being changed.  If \b=\b\avalue\a is specified, "
      "the variable \aname\a is set to \avalue\a before the variable "
      "is made readonly.]"
"[+?Within a type definition, if the value is not specified, then a "
      "value must be specified when creating each instance of the type "
        "and the value is readonly for each instance.]"
"[+?If no \aname\as are specified then the names and values of all "
      "readonly variables are written to standard output.]" 
"[+?\breadonly\b is built-in to the shell as a declaration command so that "
      "field splitting and pathname expansion are not performed on "
      "the arguments.  Tilde expansion occurs on \avalue\a.]"
"[p?Causes the output to be in a form of \breadonly\b commands that can be "
      "used as input to the shell to recreate the current set of "
      "readonly variables.]"
"\n"
"\n[name[=value]...]\n"
"\n"
"[+EXIT STATUS?]{"
        "[+0?Successful completion.]"
        "[+>0?An error occurred.]"
"}"

"[+SEE ALSO?\bsh\b(1), \btypeset\b(1)]"
;

const char sh_optreturn[] =
"[-1c?\n@(#)$Id: return (AT&T Research) 1999-07-07 $\n]"
USAGE_LICENSE
"[+NAME?return - return from a function or dot script ]"
"[+DESCRIPTION?\breturn\b is a shell special built-in that causes the "
      "function or dot script that invokes it to exit.  "
      "If \breturn\b is invoked outside of a function or dot script "
      "it is equivalent to \bexit\b.]"
"[+?If \breturn\b is invoked inside a function defined with the \bfunction\b "
      "reserved word syntax, then any \bEXIT\b trap set within the "
      "then function will be invoked in the context of the caller "
      "before the function returns.]"
"[+?If \an\a is given, it will be used to set the exit status.]"
"\n"
"\n[n]\n"
"\n"
"[+EXIT STATUS?If \an\a is specified, the exit status is the least significant "
      "eight bits of the value of \an\a.  Otherwise, the exit status is the "
      "exit status of preceding command.]"
"[+SEE ALSO?\bbreak\b(1), \bexit\b(1)]"
;


const char sh_optksh[] =
"+[-1c?\n@(#)$Id: sh (AT&T Research) "SH_RELEASE" $\n]"
USAGE_LICENSE
"[+NAME?\b\f?\f\b - Shell, the standard command language interpreter]"
"[+DESCRIPTION?\b\f?\f\b is a command language interpreter that "
      "executes commands read from a command line string, the "
      "standard input, or a specified file.]"
"[+?If the \b-i\b option is present, or there are no \aarg\as and "
      "the standard input and standard error are attached to a "
      "terminal, the shell is considered to be interactive.]"
"[+?The \b-s\b and \b-c\b options are mutually exclusive.  If the \b-c\b "
      "option is specified, the first \aarg\a is the command-line string "
      "and must be specified.  Any remaining \aarg\as will be used "
      "to initialize \b$0\b and positional parameters.]" 
"[+?If the neither \b-s\b nor \b-c\b is specified, then the first \barg\b "
      "will be the pathname of the file containing commands and \b$0\b "
      "will be set to this value.  If there is no file with this pathname, "
      "and this pathame does not contain a \b/\b, then the \bPATH\b "
      "will be searched for an executable with this name.  Any remaining "
      "\aarg\as will be used to initialize the positional parmaeters.]"
"[+?Any option can use a \b+\b instead of a \b-\b to disable the corresponding "
      "option.]"
"[c?Read the commands from the first \aarg\a.]"
"[i?Specifies that the shell is interactive.]"
"[l?Invoke the shell as a login shell; \b/etc/profile\b and \b$HOME/.profile\b, "
      "if they exist, are read before the first command.]"
"[r\f:restricted\f?Invoke the shell in a restricted mode.  A restricted "
      "shell does not permit any of the following:]{"
      "[+-?Changing the working directory.]"
      "[+-?Setting values or attributes of the variables \bSHELL\b, "
            "\bENV\b, \bFPATH\b, or \bPATH\b.]"
      "[+-?Executing any command whose name as a \b/\b in it.]"
      "[+-?Redirecting output of a command with \b>\b, \b>|\b, "
            "\b<>\b, or \b>>\b.]"
      "[+-?Adding or deleting built-in commands or libraries with "
            "\bbuiltin\b.]"
      "[+-?Executing \bcommand -p\b \a...\a .]"
      "}"
"[s?Read the commands from standard input.  The positional parameters will be "
      "initialized from \aarg\a.]"
"[D\f:dump-strings\f?Do not execute the script, but output the set of double "
      "quoted strings preceded by a \b$\b.  These strings are needed for "
      "localization of the script to different locales.]"
"[E?Reads the file "
#if SHOPT_SYSRC
      "\b/etc/ksh.kshrc\b, if it exists, as a profile, followed by "
#endif
      "\b${ENV-$HOME/.kshrc}\b, if it exists, as a profile. "
      "On by default for interactive shells; use \b+E\b to disable.]"
#if SHOPT_PFSH
"[P?Invoke the shell as a profile shell.  See \bpfexec\b(1).]"
#endif
#if SHOPT_KIA
"[R]:[file?Do not execute the script, but create a cross reference database "
      "in \afile\a that can be used a separate shell script browser.  The "
      "-R option requires a script to be specified as the first operand.]"
#endif /* SHOPT_KIA */
#if SHOPT_REGRESS
"[I:regress]:[intercept?Enable the regression test \aintercept\a. Must be "
      "the first command line option(s).]"
#endif
#if SHOPT_BASH
   "\fbash2\f"
#endif
"\fabc\f"
"?"
"[T?Enable implementation specific test code defined by mask.]#[mask]"
"\n"
"\n[arg ...]\n"
"\n"
"[+EXIT STATUS?If \b\f?\f\b executes command, the exit status will be that "
        "of the last command executed.  Otherwise, it will be one of "
        "the following:]{"
        "[+0?The script or command line to be executed consists entirely "
            "of zero or more blank lines or comments.]"
        "[+>1-125?A noninteractive shell detected a syntax error, a variable "
            "assignment error, or an error in a special built-in.]"
      "[+126?\b-c\b and \b-s\b were not specified and the command script "
            "was found on \bPATH\b but was not executable.]"
      "[+127?\b-c\b and \b-s\b were not specified and the command script "
            "corresponding to \aarg\a could not be found.]"
"}"

"[+SEE ALSO?\bset\b(1), \bbuiltin\b(1)]"
;
const char sh_optset[] =
"+[-1c?\n@(#)$Id: set (AT&T Research) 1999-09-28 $\n]"
USAGE_LICENSE
"[+NAME?set - set/unset options and positional parameters]"
"[+DESCRIPTION?\bset\b sets or unsets options and positional parameters.  "
      "Options that are specified with a \b-\b cause the options to "
      "be set.  Options that are specified with a \b+\b cause the "
      "option to be unset.]"
"[+?\bset\b without any options or arguments displays the names and "
      "values of all shell variables in the order of the collation "
      "sequence in the current locale.  The values are quoted so that "
      "they are suitable for reinput to the shell.]"
"[+?If no \aarg\as are specified, not even the end of options argument \b--\b, "
      "the positional parameters are unchanged.  Otherwise, unless "
      "the \b-A\b options has been specified, the positional parameters "
      "are replaced by the list of \aarg\as.  A first \aarg\a of "
      "\b--\b is ignored when setting positional parameters.]"
"[+?For backward compatibility, a \bset\b command without any options "
      "specified whose first \aarg\a is \b-\b will turn off "
      "the \b-v\b and \b-x\b options.  If any additional \aarg\as "
      "are specified, they will replace the positional parameters.]"
"[s?Sort the positional parameters.]"
"[A]:[name?Assign the arguments sequentially to the array named by \aname\a "
      "starting at subscript 0 rather than to the positional parameters.]"
"\fabc\f"
"[06:default?Restore all non-command line options to the default settings.]"
"[07:state?List the current option state in the form of a \bset\b command "
      "that can be executed to restore the state.]"
"\n"
"\n[arg ...]\n"
"\n"
"[+EXIT STATUS?]{"
        "[+0?No errors occurred.]"
        "[+>0?An error occurred.]"
"}"

"[+SEE ALSO?\btypeset\b(1), \bshift\b(1)]"
;



const char sh_optshift[] =
"[-1c?\n@(#)$Id: shift (AT&T Research) 1999-07-07 $\n]"
USAGE_LICENSE
"[+NAME?shift - shift positional parameters]"
"[+DESCRIPTION?\bshift\b is a shell special built-in that shifts the "
      "positional parameters to the left by the number of places "
      "defined by \an\a, or \b1\b if \an\a is omitted.  The number of "
      "positional parameters remaining will be reduced by the "
      "number of places that are shifted.]" 
"[+?If \an\a is given, it will be evaluated as an arithmetic expression "
      "to determinate the number of places to shift.  It is an error "
      "to shift more than the number of positional parameters or a "
      "negative number of places.]"
"\n"
"\n[n]\n"
"\n"
"[+EXIT STATUS?]{"
        "[+0?The positional parameters were successfully shifted.]"
        "[+>0?An error occurred.]"
"}"
"[+SEE ALSO?\bset\b(1)]"
;

const char sh_optsleep[] =
"[-1c?\n@(#)$Id: sleep (AT&T Research) 2009-03-12 $\n]"
USAGE_LICENSE
"[+NAME?sleep - suspend execution for an interval]"
"[+DESCRIPTION?\bsleep\b suspends execution for at least the time specified "
      "by \aduration\a or until a \bSIGALRM\b signal is received. "
      "\aduration\a may be one of the following:]"
"{"
      "[+integer?The number of seconds to sleep.]"
      "[+floating point?The number of seconds to sleep. The actual "
            "granularity depends on the underlying system, normally "
            "around 1 millisecond.]"
      "[+P\an\a\bY\b\an\a\bM\b\an\a\bDT\b\an\a\bH\b\an\a\bM\b\an\a\bS?An ISO 8601 duration "
            "where at least one of the duration parts must be specified.]"
      "[+P\an\a\bW?An ISO 8601 duration specifying \an\a weeks.]"
      "[+p\an\a\bY\b\an\a\bM\b\an\a\bDT\b\an\a\bH\b\an\a\bm\b\an\a\bS?A case insensitive "
            "ISO 8601 duration except that \bM\b specifies months, \bm\b before \bs\b or \bS\b "
            "specifies minutes and after specifies milliseconds, \bu\b or \bU\b specifies "
            "microseconds, and \bn\b specifies nanoseconds.]"
      "[+date/time?Sleep until the \bdate\b(1) compatible date/time.]"
"}"
"[s?Sleep until a signal or a timeout is received. If \aduration\a is omitted "
      "or 0 then no timeout will be used.]"
"\n"
"\n[ duration ]\n"
"\n"
"[+EXIT STATUS?]{"
      "[+0?The execution was successfully suspended for at least \aduration\a "
      "or a \bSIGALRM\b signal was received.]"
      "[+>0?An error occurred.]"
"}"
"[+SEE ALSO?\bdate\b(1), \btime\b(1), \bwait\b(1)]"
;

const char sh_opttrap[] =
"[-1c?\n@(#)$Id: trap (AT&T Research) 1999-07-17 $\n]"
USAGE_LICENSE
"[+NAME?trap - trap signals and conditions]"
"[+DESCRIPTION?\btrap\b is a special built-in that defines actions to be "
      "taken when conditions such as receiving a signal occur.  Also, "
      "\btrap\b can be used to display the current trap settings on "
      "standard output.]"
"[+?If \aaction\a is \b-\b, \btrap\b resets each \acondition\a "
      "to the default value.  If \aaction\a is an empty string, the "
      "shell ignores each of the \acondition\as if they arise. "
      "Otherwise, the argument \aaction\a will be read and executed "
      "by the shell as if it were processed by \beval\b(1) when one "
      "of the corresponding conditions arise.  The action of the trap "
      "will override any previous action associated with each specified "
      "\acondition\a.  The value of \b$?\b is not altered by the trap "
      "execution.]"
"[+?\acondition\a can be the name or number of a signal, or one of the "
      "following:]{"
      "[+EXIT?This trap is executed when the shell exits.  If defined "
            "within a function defined with the \bfunction\b reserved "
            "word, the trap is executed in the caller's environment "
            "when the function returns and the trap action is restored "
            "to the value it had when it called the function.]"
      "[+0?Same as EXIT.]"
      "[+DEBUG?Executed before each simple command is executed but after "
            "the arguments are expanded.]"
      "[+ERR?Executed whenever \bset -e\b would cause the shell to exit.]"
      "[+KEYBD?Executed when a key is entered from a terminal device.]"
"}"
"[+?Signal names are case insensitive and the \bsig\b prefix is optional.  "
      "Signals that were ignored on entry to a noninteractive shell cannot "
      "trapped or reset although doing so will not report an error.  The "
      "use of signal numbers other than \b1\b, \b2\b, \b3\b, \b6\b, "
      "\b9\b, \b14\b, and \b15\b is not portable.]"
"[+?Although \btrap\b is a special built-in, specifying a condition that "
      "the shell does not know about causes \btrap\b to exit with a "
      "non-zero exit status, but does not terminate the invoking shell.]"
"[+?If no \aaction\a or \acondition\as are specified then all the current "
      "trap settings are written to standard output.]" 
"[p?Causes the current traps to be output in a format that can be processed "
      "as input to the shell to recreate the current traps.]"
"\n"
"\n[action condition ...]\n"
"\n"
"[+EXIT STATUS?]{"
        "[+0?Successful completion.]"
        "[+>0?An error occurred.]"
"}"

"[+SEE ALSO?\bkill\b(1), \beval\b(1), \bsignal\b(3)]"
;

const char sh_opttypeset[] =
"+[-1c?\n@(#)$Id: typeset (AT&T Research) 2008-08-04 $\n]"
USAGE_LICENSE
"[+NAME?\f?\f - declare or display variables with attributes]"
"[+DESCRIPTION?Without the \b-f\b option, \b\f?\f\b sets, unsets, "
      "or displays attributes of variables as specified with the "
      "options.  If the first option is specified with a \b-\b "
      "then the attributes are set for each of the given \aname\as. "
      "If the first option is specified with a \b+\b, then the specified "
      "attributes are unset.  If \b=\b\avalue\a is specified value is "
      "assigned before the attributes are set.]"
"[+?When \b\f?\f\b is called inside a function defined with the "
      "\bfunction\b reserved word, and \aname\a does not contain a "
      "\b.\b, then a local variable statically scoped to  that function "
      "will be created.]"
"[+?Not all option combinations are possible.  For example, the numeric "
      "options \b-i\b, \b-E\b, and \b-F\b cannot be specified with "
      "the justification options \b-L\b, \b-R\b, and \b-Z\b.]"
"[+?Note that the following preset aliases are set by the shell:]{"
      "[+compound?\b\f?\f -C\b.]"
      "[+float?\b\f?\f -lE\b.]"
      "[+functions?\b\f?\f -f\b.]"
      "[+integer?\b\f?\f -li\b.]"
      "[+nameref?\b\f?\f -n\b.]"
"}"
"[+?If no \aname\as are specified then variables that have the specified "
      "options are displayed.  If the first option is specified with "
      "a leading \b-\b then the name and value of each variable is "
      "written to standard output.  Otherwise, only the names are "
      "written.  If no options are specified or just \b-p\b is "
      "specified, then the names and attributes of all variables that have "
      "attributes are written to standard output.  When \b-f\b is specified, "
      "the names displayed will be function names.]"
"[+?If \b-f\b is specified, then each \aname\a refers to a function "
      "and the only valid options are \b-u\b and \b-t\b.  In this "
      "case no \b=\b\avalue\a can be specified.]"
"[+?\b\f?\f\b is built-in to the shell as a declaration command so that "
      "field splitting and pathname expansion are not performed on "
      "the arguments.  Tilde expansion occurs on \avalue\a.]"
#if 1
"[a]:?[type?Indexed array.  This is the default. If \b[\b\atype\a\b]]\b is "
    "specified, each subscript is interpreted as a value of type \atype\a.]"
#else
"[a?Indexed array. this is the default.]"
#endif
"[b?Each \aname\a may contain binary data.  Its value is the mime "
      "base64 encoding of the data. It can be used with \b-Z\b, "
      "to specify fixed sized fields.]"
"[f?Each of the options and \aname\as refers to a function.]"
"[i]#?[base:=10?An integer. \abase\a represents the arithmetic base "
      "from 2 to 64.]"
"[l?Convert uppercase character to lowercase.  Unsets \b-u\b attribute.  When "
      "used with \b-i\b, \b-E\b, or \b-F\b indicates long variant.]"
"[m?Move.  The value is the name of a variable whose value will be "
      "moved to \aname\a.  The orignal variable will be unset.  Cannot be "
      "used with any other options.]"
"[n?Name reference.  The value is the name of a variable that \aname\a "
      "references.  \aname\a cannot contain a \b.\b.  Cannot be use with "
      "any other options.]"
"[p?Causes the output to be in a format that can be used as input to the "
      "shell to recreate the attributes for variables.]"
"[r?Enables readonly.  Once enabled it cannot be disabled.  See "
      "\breadonly\b(1).]"
"[s?Used with \b-i\b to restrict integer size to short.]"
"[t?When used with \b-f\b, enables tracing for each of the specified "
      "functions.  Otherwise, \b-t\b is a user defined attribute and "
      "has no meaning to the shell.]"
"[u?Without \b-f\b or \b-i\b, converts lowercase character to uppercase "
      "and unsets \b-l\b.  With \b-f\b specifies that \aname\a is a function "
      "that hasn't been loaded yet.  With \b-i\b specifies that the "
      "value will be displayed as an unsigned integer.]"
"[x?Puts each \aname\a on the export list.  See \bexport\b(1).  \aname\a "
      "cannot contain a \b.\b.]"
"[A?Associative array.  Each \aname\a will converted to an associate "
      "array.  If a variable already exists, the current value will "
      "become index \b0\b.]"
"[C?Compound variable.  Each \aname\a will be a compound variable.  If "
      "\avalue\a names a compound variable it will be copied to \aname\a. "
      "Otherwise if the variable already exists, it will first be unset.]"
"[E]#?[n:=10?Floating point number represented in scientific notation. "
      "\an\a specifies the number of significant figures when the "
      "value is expanded.]"
"[F]#?[n:=10?Floating point.  \an\a is the number of places after the "
      "decimal point when the value is expanded.]"
"[H?Hostname mapping.  Each \aname\a holds a native pathname.  Assigning a "
      "UNIX format pathname will cause it to be converted to a pathname "
      "suitable for the current host.  This has no effect when the "
      "native system is UNIX.]"
"[L]#?[n?Left justify.  If \an\a is given it represents the field width.  If "
      "the \b-Z\b attribute is also specified, then leading zeros are "
      "stripped.]"
"[R]#?[n?Right justify.  If \an\a is given it represents the field width.  If "
      "the \b-Z\b attribute is also specified, then zeros will "
      "be used as the fill character.  Otherwise, spaces are used.]"
"[X]#?[n:=2*sizeof(long long)?Floating point number represented in hexadecimal "
      "notation.  \an\a specifies the number of significant figures when the "
      "value is expanded.]"

#ifdef SHOPT_TYPEDEF
"[h]:[string?Used within a type definition to provide a help string  "
      "for variable \aname\a.  Otherwise, it is ignored.]"
"[S?Used with a type definition to indicate that the variable is shared by "
      "each instance of the type.  When used inside a function defined "
      "with the \bfunction\b reserved word, the specified variables "
      "will have function static scope.  Otherwise, the variable is "
      "unset prior to processing the assignment list.]"
#endif
"[T]:[tname?\atname\a is the name of a type name given to each \aname\a.]"
"[Z]#?[n?Zero fill.  If \an\a is given it represents the field width.]"
"\n"
"\n[name[=value]...]\n"
" -f [name...]\n"
"\n"
"[+EXIT STATUS?]{"
        "[+0?No errors occurred.]"
        "[+>0?An error occurred.]"
"}"

"[+SEE ALSO?\breadonly\b(1), \bexport\b(1)]"
;

const char sh_optulimit[] =
"[-1c?@(#)$Id: ulimit (AT&T Research) 2003-06-21 $\n]"
USAGE_LICENSE
"[+NAME?ulimit - set or display resource limits]"
"[+DESCRIPTION?\bulimit\b sets or displays resource limits.  These "
      "limits apply to the current process and to each child process "
      "created after the resource limit has been set.  If \alimit\a "
      "is specified, the resource limit is set, otherwise, its current value "
      "is displayed on standard output.]"
"[+?Increasing the limit for a resource usually requires special privileges.  "
      "Some systems allow you to lower resource limits and later increase "
      "them.  These are called soft limits.  Once a hard limit is "
      "set the resource can not be increased.]"
"[+?Different systems allow you to specify different resources and some "
      "restrict how much you can raise the limit of the resource.]"
"[+?The value of \alimit\a depends on the unit of the resource listed "
      "for each resource.  In addition, \alimit\a can be \bunlimited\b "
      "to indicate no limit for that resource.]"
"[+?If you do not specify \b-H\b or \b-S\b, then \b-S\b is used for "
      "listing and both \b-S\b and \b-H\b are used for setting resources.]"
"[+?If you do not specify any resource, the default is \b-f\b.]"
"[H?A hard limit is set or displayed.]"
"[S?A soft limit is set or displayed.]"
"[a?Displays all current resource limits]"
"\flimits\f"
"\n"
"\n[limit]\n"
"\n"
"[+EXIT STATUS?]{"
      "[+0?Successful completion.]"
      "[+>0?A request for a higher limit was rejected or an error occurred.]"
"}"

"[+SEE ALSO?\bulimit\b(2), \bgetrlimit\b(2)]"
;

const char sh_optumask[] =
"[-1c?\n@(#)$Id: umask (AT&T Research) 1999-04-07 $\n]"
USAGE_LICENSE
"[+NAME?umask - get or set the file creation mask]"
"[+DESCRIPTION?\bumask\b sets the file creation mask of the current "
      "shell execution environment to the value specified by the "
      "\amask\a operand.  This mask affects the file permission bits "
      "of subsequently created files.  \amask\a can either be an "
      "octal number or a symbolic value as described in \bchmod\b(1).  "
      "If a symbolic value is given, the new file creation mask is the "
      "complement of the result of applying \amask\a to the complement "
      "of the current file creation mask.]"
"[+?If \amask\a is not specified, \bumask\b writes the value of the "
      "file creation mask for the current process to standard output.]"
"[S?Causes the file creation mask to be written or treated as a symbolic value "
      "rather than an octal number.]"
"\n"
"\n[mask]\n"
"\n"
"[+EXIT STATUS?]{"
      "[+0?The file creation mask was successfully changed, or no "
            "\amask\a operand was supplied.]"
      "[+>0?An error occurred.]"
"}"
"[+SEE ALSO?\bchmod\b(1)]"
;
const char sh_optuniverse[]   = " [name]";
const char sh_optunset[] =
"[-1c?\n@(#)$Id: unset (AT&T Research) 1999-07-07 $\n]"
USAGE_LICENSE
"[+NAME?unset - unset values and attributes of variables and functions]"
"[+DESCRIPTION?For each \aname\a specified, \bunset\b  unsets the variable, "
      "or function if \b-f\b is specified, from the current shell "
      "execution environment.  Readonly variables cannot be unset.]"
"[n?If \aname\a refers to variable that is a reference, the variable \aname\a "
      "will be unset rather than the variable it references.  Otherwise, "
      "is is equivalent to \b-v\b.]"
"[f?\aname\a refers to a function name and the shell will unset the "
      "function definition.]"
"[v?\aname\a refers to a variable name and the shell will unset it and "
      "remove it from the environment.  This is the default behavior.]"
"\n"
"\nname...\n"
"\n"
"[+EXIT STATUS?]{"
        "[+0?All \aname\as were successfully unset.]"
        "[+>0?One or more \aname\a operands could not be unset "
      "or an error occurred.]"
"}"

"[+SEE ALSO?\btypeset\b(1)]"
;

const char sh_optunalias[] =
"[-1c?\n@(#)$Id: unalias (AT&T Research) 1999-07-07 $\n]"
USAGE_LICENSE
"[+NAME?unalias - remove alias definitions]"
"[+DESCRIPTION?\bunalias\b removes the definition of each named alias "
      "from the current shell execution environment, or all aliases if "
      "\b-a\b is specified.  It will not affect any commands that "
      "have already been read and subsequently executed.]"
"[a?Causes all alias definitions to be removed.  \aname\a operands "
      "are optional and ignored in this case.]"
"\n"
"\nname...\n"
"\n"
"[+EXIT STATUS?]{"
        "[+0?Successful completion.]"
        "[+>0?\b-a\b was not specified and one or more \aname\a operands "
      "did not have an alias definition, or an error occurred.]"
"}"

"[+SEE ALSO?\balias\b(1)]"
;

const char sh_optwait[] =
"[-1c?\n@(#)$Id: wait (AT&T Research) 1999-06-17 $\n]"
USAGE_LICENSE
"[+NAME?wait - wait for process or job completion]"
"[+DESCRIPTION?\bwait\b with no operands, waits until all jobs "
      "known to the invoking shell have terminated.  If one or more "
      "\ajob\a operands are specified, \bwait\b waits until all of them "
      "have completed.]"
"[+?Each \ajob\a can be specified as one of the following:]{"
      "[+\anumber\a?\anumber\a refers to a process id.]"
      "[+-\anumber\a?\anumber\a refers to a process group id.]"
      "[+%\anumber\a?\anumber\a refer to a job number.]"
      "[+%\astring\a?Refers to a job whose name begins with \astring\a.]"
      "[+%??\astring\a?Refers to a job whose name contains \astring\a.]"
      "[+%+ \bor\b %%?Refers to the current job.]"
      "[+%-?Refers to the previous job.]"
"}"
"[+?If one ore more \ajob\a operands is a process id or process group id "
      "not known by the current shell environment, \bwait\b treats each "
      "of them as if it were a process that exited with status 127.]"
"\n"
"\n[job ...]\n"
"\n"
"[+EXIT STATUS?If \await\a is invoked with one or more \ajob\as, and all of "
      "them have terminated or were not known by the invoking shell, "
      "the exit status of \bwait\b  will be that of the last \ajob\a.  "
      "Otherwise, it will be one of the following:]{"
      "[+0?\bwait\b utility was invoked with no operands and all "
            "processes known by the invoking process have terminated.]"
      "[+127?\ajob\a is a process id or process group id that is unknown "
            "to the current shell environment.]"
"}"

"[+SEE ALSO?\bjobs\b(1), \bps\b(1)]"
;

#if SHOPT_FS_3D
    const char sh_optvpath[]  = " [top] [base]";
    const char sh_optvmap[]   = " [dir] [list]";
#endif /* SHOPT_FS_3D */

const char sh_optwhence[] =
"[-1c?\n@(#)$Id: whence (AT&T Research) 2007-04-24 $\n]"
USAGE_LICENSE
"[+NAME?whence - locate a command and describe its type]"
"[+DESCRIPTION?Without \b-v\b, \bwhence\b writes on standard output an "
      "absolute pathname, if any, corresponding to \aname\a based "
      "on the complete search order that the shell uses.  If \aname\a "  
      "is not found, then no output is produced.]"
"[+?If \b-v\b is specified, the output will also contain information "
      "that indicates how the given \aname\a would be interpreted by "
      "the shell in the current execution environment.]" 
"[a?Displays all uses for each \aname\a rather than the first.]"
"[f?Do not check for functions.]"
"[p?Do not check to see if \aname\a is a reserved word, a built-in, "
      "an alias, or a function.  This turns off the \b-v\b option.]"
"[q?Quiet mode. Returns 0 if all arguments are built-ins, functions, or are "
      "programs found on the path.]"
"[v?For each name you specify, the shell displays a line that indicates "
      "if that name is one of the following:]{"
      "[+?Reserved word]"
      "[+?Alias]"
      "[+?Built-in]"
      "[+?Undefined function]"
      "[+?Function]"
      "[+?Tracked alias]"
      "[+?Program]"
"}"
"\n"
"\nname  ...\n"
"\n"
"[+EXIT STATUS?]{"
      "[+0?Each \aname\a was found by the shell.]"
      "[+1?One or more \aname\as were not found by the shell.]"
      "[+>1?An error occurred.]"
"}"

"[+SEE ALSO?\bcommand\b(1)]"
;


const char e_alrm1[]          = "alarm -r %s +%.3g\n";
const char e_alrm2[]          = "alarm %s %.3f\n";
const char e_baddisc[]        = "%s: invalid discipline function";
const char e_nospace[]        = "out of memory";
const char e_nofork[]         = "cannot fork";
const char e_nosignal[]       = "%s: unknown signal name";
const char e_condition[]      = "condition(s) required";
const char e_cneedsarg[]      = "-c requires argument";

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