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crypt.c

/***********************************************************************
*                                                                      *
*               This software is part of the ast package               *
*                  Copyright (c) 1985-2005 AT&T Corp.                  *
*                      and is licensed under the                       *
*                  Common Public License, Version 1.0                  *
*                            by AT&T Corp.                             *
*                                                                      *
*                A copy of the License is available at                 *
*            http://www.opensource.org/licenses/cpl1.0.txt             *
*         (with md5 checksum 059e8cd6165cb4c31e351f2b69388fd9)         *
*                                                                      *
*              Information and Software Systems Research               *
*                            AT&T Research                             *
*                           Florham Park NJ                            *
*                                                                      *
*                 Glenn Fowler <gsf@research.att.com>                  *
*                  David Korn <dgk@research.att.com>                   *
*                   Phong Vo <kpv@research.att.com>                    *
*                                                                      *
***********************************************************************/
#pragma prototyped
/*
 * Copyright (c) 1989, 1993
 *    The Regents of the University of California.  All rights reserved.
 *
 * This code is derived from software contributed to Berkeley by
 * Tom Truscott.
 *
 * Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
 * modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions
 * are met:
 * 1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright
 *    notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
 * 2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright
 *    notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the
 *    documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution.
 * 3. Neither the name of the University nor the names of its contributors
 *    may be used to endorse or promote products derived from this software
 *    without specific prior written permission.
 *
 * THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE REGENTS AND CONTRIBUTORS ``AS IS'' AND
 * ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE
 * IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE
 * ARE DISCLAIMED.  IN NO EVENT SHALL THE REGENTS OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE
 * FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL
 * DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS
 * OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION)
 * HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT
 * LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY
 * OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF
 * SUCH DAMAGE.
 */

#if defined(LIBC_SCCS) && !defined(lint)
static char sccsid[] = "@(#)crypt.c 8.1 (Berkeley) 6/4/93";
#endif /* LIBC_SCCS and not lint */

/* #include <unistd.h> */
#include <stdio.h>
#include <limits.h>
#include <pwd.h>

#ifndef _PASSWORD_EFMT1
#define _PASSWORD_EFMT1 '-'
#endif

#if defined(__EXPORT__)
#define extern    __EXPORT__
#endif

/*
 * UNIX password, and DES, encryption.
 * By Tom Truscott, trt@rti.rti.org,
 * from algorithms by Robert W. Baldwin and James Gillogly.
 *
 * References:
 * "Mathematical Cryptology for Computer Scientists and Mathematicians,"
 * by Wayne Patterson, 1987, ISBN 0-8476-7438-X.
 *
 * "Password Security: A Case History," R. Morris and Ken Thompson,
 * Communications of the ACM, vol. 22, pp. 594-597, Nov. 1979.
 *
 * "DES will be Totally Insecure within Ten Years," M.E. Hellman,
 * IEEE Spectrum, vol. 16, pp. 32-39, July 1979.
 */

/* =====  Configuration ==================== */

/*
 * define "MUST_ALIGN" if your compiler cannot load/store
 * long integers at arbitrary (e.g. odd) memory locations.
 * (Either that or never pass unaligned addresses to des_cipher!)
 */
#if !defined(vax)
#define     MUST_ALIGN
#endif

#ifdef CHAR_BITS
#if CHAR_BITS != 8
      #error C_block structure assumes 8 bit characters
#endif
#endif

/*
 * define "LONG_IS_32_BITS" only if sizeof(long)==4.
 * This avoids use of bit fields (your compiler may be sloppy with them).
 */
#if !defined(cray)
#define     LONG_IS_32_BITS
#endif

/*
 * define "B64" to be the declaration for a 64 bit integer.
 * XXX this feature is currently unused, see "endian" comment below.
 */
#if defined(cray)
#define     B64   long
#endif
#if defined(convex)
#define     B64   long long
#endif

/*
 * define "LARGEDATA" to get faster permutations, by using about 72 kilobytes
 * of lookup tables.  This speeds up des_setkey() and des_cipher(), but has
 * little effect on crypt().
 */
#if defined(notdef)
#define     LARGEDATA
#endif

/* ==================================== */

/*
 * Cipher-block representation (Bob Baldwin):
 *
 * DES operates on groups of 64 bits, numbered 1..64 (sigh).  One
 * representation is to store one bit per byte in an array of bytes.  Bit N of
 * the NBS spec is stored as the LSB of the Nth byte (index N-1) in the array.
 * Another representation stores the 64 bits in 8 bytes, with bits 1..8 in the
 * first byte, 9..16 in the second, and so on.  The DES spec apparently has
 * bit 1 in the MSB of the first byte, but that is particularly noxious so we
 * bit-reverse each byte so that bit 1 is the LSB of the first byte, bit 8 is
 * the MSB of the first byte.  Specifically, the 64-bit input data and key are
 * converted to LSB format, and the output 64-bit block is converted back into
 * MSB format.
 *
 * DES operates internally on groups of 32 bits which are expanded to 48 bits
 * by permutation E and shrunk back to 32 bits by the S boxes.  To speed up
 * the computation, the expansion is applied only once, the expanded
 * representation is maintained during the encryption, and a compression
 * permutation is applied only at the end.  To speed up the S-box lookups,
 * the 48 bits are maintained as eight 6 bit groups, one per byte, which
 * directly feed the eight S-boxes.  Within each byte, the 6 bits are the
 * most significant ones.  The low two bits of each byte are zero.  (Thus,
 * bit 1 of the 48 bit E expansion is stored as the "4"-valued bit of the
 * first byte in the eight byte representation, bit 2 of the 48 bit value is
 * the "8"-valued bit, and so on.)  In fact, a combined "SPE"-box lookup is
 * used, in which the output is the 64 bit result of an S-box lookup which
 * has been permuted by P and expanded by E, and is ready for use in the next
 * iteration.  Two 32-bit wide tables, SPE[0] and SPE[1], are used for this
 * lookup.  Since each byte in the 48 bit path is a multiple of four, indexed
 * lookup of SPE[0] and SPE[1] is simple and fast.  The key schedule and
 * "salt" are also converted to this 8*(6+2) format.  The SPE table size is
 * 8*64*8 = 4K bytes.
 *
 * To speed up bit-parallel operations (such as XOR), the 8 byte
 * representation is "union"ed with 32 bit values "i0" and "i1", and, on
 * machines which support it, a 64 bit value "b64".  This data structure,
 * "C_block", has two problems.  First, alignment restrictions must be
 * honored.  Second, the byte-order (e.g. little-endian or big-endian) of
 * the architecture becomes visible.
 *
 * The byte-order problem is unfortunate, since on the one hand it is good
 * to have a machine-independent C_block representation (bits 1..8 in the
 * first byte, etc.), and on the other hand it is good for the LSB of the
 * first byte to be the LSB of i0.  We cannot have both these things, so we
 * currently use the "little-endian" representation and avoid any multi-byte
 * operations that depend on byte order.  This largely precludes use of the
 * 64-bit datatype since the relative order of i0 and i1 are unknown.  It
 * also inhibits grouping the SPE table to look up 12 bits at a time.  (The
 * 12 bits can be stored in a 16-bit field with 3 low-order zeroes and 1
 * high-order zero, providing fast indexing into a 64-bit wide SPE.)  On the
 * other hand, 64-bit datatypes are currently rare, and a 12-bit SPE lookup
 * requires a 128 kilobyte table, so perhaps this is not a big loss.
 *
 * Permutation representation (Jim Gillogly):
 *
 * A transformation is defined by its effect on each of the 8 bytes of the
 * 64-bit input.  For each byte we give a 64-bit output that has the bits in
 * the input distributed appropriately.  The transformation is then the OR
 * of the 8 sets of 64-bits.  This uses 8*256*8 = 16K bytes of storage for
 * each transformation.  Unless LARGEDATA is defined, however, a more compact
 * table is used which looks up 16 4-bit "chunks" rather than 8 8-bit chunks.
 * The smaller table uses 16*16*8 = 2K bytes for each transformation.  This
 * is slower but tolerable, particularly for password encryption in which
 * the SPE transformation is iterated many times.  The small tables total 9K
 * bytes, the large tables total 72K bytes.
 *
 * The transformations used are:
 * IE3264: MSB->LSB conversion, initial permutation, and expansion.
 *    This is done by collecting the 32 even-numbered bits and applying
 *    a 32->64 bit transformation, and then collecting the 32 odd-numbered
 *    bits and applying the same transformation.  Since there are only
 *    32 input bits, the IE3264 transformation table is half the size of
 *    the usual table.
 * CF6464: Compression, final permutation, and LSB->MSB conversion.
 *    This is done by two trivial 48->32 bit compressions to obtain
 *    a 64-bit block (the bit numbering is given in the "CIFP" table)
 *    followed by a 64->64 bit "cleanup" transformation.  (It would
 *    be possible to group the bits in the 64-bit block so that 2
 *    identical 32->32 bit transformations could be used instead,
 *    saving a factor of 4 in space and possibly 2 in time, but
 *    byte-ordering and other complications rear their ugly head.
 *    Similar opportunities/problems arise in the key schedule
 *    transforms.)
 * PC1ROT: MSB->LSB, PC1 permutation, rotate, and PC2 permutation.
 *    This admittedly baroque 64->64 bit transformation is used to
 *    produce the first code (in 8*(6+2) format) of the key schedule.
 * PC2ROT[0]: Inverse PC2 permutation, rotate, and PC2 permutation.
 *    It would be possible to define 15 more transformations, each
 *    with a different rotation, to generate the entire key schedule.
 *    To save space, however, we instead permute each code into the
 *    next by using a transformation that "undoes" the PC2 permutation,
 *    rotates the code, and then applies PC2.  Unfortunately, PC2
 *    transforms 56 bits into 48 bits, dropping 8 bits, so PC2 is not
 *    invertible.  We get around that problem by using a modified PC2
 *    which retains the 8 otherwise-lost bits in the unused low-order
 *    bits of each byte.  The low-order bits are cleared when the
 *    codes are stored into the key schedule.
 * PC2ROT[1]: Same as PC2ROT[0], but with two rotations.
 *    This is faster than applying PC2ROT[0] twice,
 *
 * The Bell Labs "salt" (Bob Baldwin):
 *
 * The salting is a simple permutation applied to the 48-bit result of E.
 * Specifically, if bit i (1 <= i <= 24) of the salt is set then bits i and
 * i+24 of the result are swapped.  The salt is thus a 24 bit number, with
 * 16777216 possible values.  (The original salt was 12 bits and could not
 * swap bits 13..24 with 36..48.)
 *
 * It is possible, but ugly, to warp the SPE table to account for the salt
 * permutation.  Fortunately, the conditional bit swapping requires only
 * about four machine instructions and can be done on-the-fly with about an
 * 8% performance penalty.
 */

typedef union {
      unsigned char b[8];
      struct  {
#if defined(LONG_IS_32_BITS)
            /* long is often faster than a 32-bit bit field */
            long  i0;
            long  i1;
#else
            long  i0: 32;
            long  i1: 32;
#endif
      } b32;
#if defined(B64)
      B64   b64;
#endif
} C_block;

/*
 * Convert twenty-four-bit long in host-order
 * to six bits (and 2 low-order zeroes) per char little-endian format.
 */
#define     TO_SIX_BIT(rslt, src) {                   \
            C_block cvt;                        \
            cvt.b[0] = (unsigned char) src; src >>= 6;            \
            cvt.b[1] = (unsigned char) src; src >>= 6;            \
            cvt.b[2] = (unsigned char) src; src >>= 6;            \
            cvt.b[3] = (unsigned char) src;                       \
            rslt = (cvt.b32.i0 & 0x3f3f3f3fL) << 2;   \
      }

/*
 * These macros may someday permit efficient use of 64-bit integers.
 */
#define     ZERO(d,d0,d1)                 d0 = 0, d1 = 0
#define     LOAD(d,d0,d1,bl)        d0 = (bl).b32.i0, d1 = (bl).b32.i1
#define     LOADREG(d,d0,d1,s,s0,s1)      d0 = s0, d1 = s1
#define     OR(d,d0,d1,bl)                d0 |= (bl).b32.i0, d1 |= (bl).b32.i1
#define     STORE(s,s0,s1,bl)       (bl).b32.i0 = s0, (bl).b32.i1 = s1
#define     DCL_BLOCK(d,d0,d1)            long d0, d1
/* proto(1) workarounds -- barf */
#define DCL_BLOCK_D                 DCL_BLOCK(D,D0,D1)
#define DCL_BLOCK_K                 DCL_BLOCK(K,K0,K1)

#if defined(LARGEDATA)
      /* Waste memory like crazy.  Also, do permutations in line */
#define     LGCHUNKBITS 3
#define     CHUNKBITS   (1<<LGCHUNKBITS)
#define     PERM6464(d,d0,d1,cpp,p)                   \
      LOAD(d,d0,d1,(p)[(0<<CHUNKBITS)+(cpp)[0]]);           \
      OR (d,d0,d1,(p)[(1<<CHUNKBITS)+(cpp)[1]]);            \
      OR (d,d0,d1,(p)[(2<<CHUNKBITS)+(cpp)[2]]);            \
      OR (d,d0,d1,(p)[(3<<CHUNKBITS)+(cpp)[3]]);            \
      OR (d,d0,d1,(p)[(4<<CHUNKBITS)+(cpp)[4]]);            \
      OR (d,d0,d1,(p)[(5<<CHUNKBITS)+(cpp)[5]]);            \
      OR (d,d0,d1,(p)[(6<<CHUNKBITS)+(cpp)[6]]);            \
      OR (d,d0,d1,(p)[(7<<CHUNKBITS)+(cpp)[7]]);
#define     PERM3264(d,d0,d1,cpp,p)                   \
      LOAD(d,d0,d1,(p)[(0<<CHUNKBITS)+(cpp)[0]]);           \
      OR (d,d0,d1,(p)[(1<<CHUNKBITS)+(cpp)[1]]);            \
      OR (d,d0,d1,(p)[(2<<CHUNKBITS)+(cpp)[2]]);            \
      OR (d,d0,d1,(p)[(3<<CHUNKBITS)+(cpp)[3]]);
#else
      /* "small data" */
#define     LGCHUNKBITS 2
#define     CHUNKBITS   (1<<LGCHUNKBITS)
#define     PERM6464(d,d0,d1,cpp,p)                   \
      { C_block tblk; permute(cpp,&tblk,p,8); LOAD (d,d0,d1,tblk); }
#define     PERM3264(d,d0,d1,cpp,p)                   \
      { C_block tblk; permute(cpp,&tblk,p,4); LOAD (d,d0,d1,tblk); }

static void permute(unsigned char *cp, C_block *out, register C_block *p, int chars_in) {
      register DCL_BLOCK_D;
      register C_block *tp;
      register int t;

      ZERO(D,D0,D1);
      do {
            t = *cp++;
            tp = &p[t&0xf]; OR(D,D0,D1,*tp); p += (1<<CHUNKBITS);
            tp = &p[t>>4];  OR(D,D0,D1,*tp); p += (1<<CHUNKBITS);
      } while (--chars_in > 0);
      STORE(D,D0,D1,*out);
}
#endif /* LARGEDATA */


/* =====  (mostly) Standard DES Tables ==================== */

static unsigned char IP[] = {       /* initial permutation */
      58, 50, 42, 34, 26, 18, 10,  2,
      60, 52, 44, 36, 28, 20, 12,  4,
      62, 54, 46, 38, 30, 22, 14,  6,
      64, 56, 48, 40, 32, 24, 16,  8,
      57, 49, 41, 33, 25, 17,  9,  1,
      59, 51, 43, 35, 27, 19, 11,  3,
      61, 53, 45, 37, 29, 21, 13,  5,
      63, 55, 47, 39, 31, 23, 15,  7,
};

/* The final permutation is the inverse of IP - no table is necessary */

static unsigned char ExpandTr[] = { /* expansion operation */
      32,  1,  2,  3,  4,  5,
       4,  5,  6,  7,  8,  9,
       8,  9, 10, 11, 12, 13,
      12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17,
      16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21,
      20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25,
      24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29,
      28, 29, 30, 31, 32,  1,
};

static unsigned char PC1[] = {            /* permuted choice table 1 */
      57, 49, 41, 33, 25, 17,  9,
       1, 58, 50, 42, 34, 26, 18,
      10,  2, 59, 51, 43, 35, 27,
      19, 11,  3, 60, 52, 44, 36,

      63, 55, 47, 39, 31, 23, 15,
       7, 62, 54, 46, 38, 30, 22,
      14,  6, 61, 53, 45, 37, 29,
      21, 13,  5, 28, 20, 12,  4,
};

static unsigned char Rotates[] = {  /* PC1 rotation schedule */
      1, 1, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 1, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 1,
};

/* note: each "row" of PC2 is left-padded with bits that make it invertible */
static unsigned char PC2[] = {            /* permuted choice table 2 */
       9, 18,    14, 17, 11, 24,  1,  5,
      22, 25,     3, 28, 15,  6, 21, 10,
      35, 38,    23, 19, 12,  4, 26,  8,
      43, 54,    16,  7, 27, 20, 13,  2,

       0,  0,    41, 52, 31, 37, 47, 55,
       0,  0,    30, 40, 51, 45, 33, 48,
       0,  0,    44, 49, 39, 56, 34, 53,
       0,  0,    46, 42, 50, 36, 29, 32,
};

static unsigned char S[8][64] = {   /* 48->32 bit substitution tables */
                              /* S[1]                 */
      14,  4, 13,  1,  2, 15, 11,  8,  3, 10,  6, 12,  5,  9,  0,  7,
       0, 15,  7,  4, 14,  2, 13,  1, 10,  6, 12, 11,  9,  5,  3,  8,
       4,  1, 14,  8, 13,  6,  2, 11, 15, 12,  9,  7,  3, 10,  5,  0,
      15, 12,  8,  2,  4,  9,  1,  7,  5, 11,  3, 14, 10,  0,  6, 13,
                              /* S[2]                 */
      15,  1,  8, 14,  6, 11,  3,  4,  9,  7,  2, 13, 12,  0,  5, 10,
       3, 13,  4,  7, 15,  2,  8, 14, 12,  0,  1, 10,  6,  9, 11,  5,
       0, 14,  7, 11, 10,  4, 13,  1,  5,  8, 12,  6,  9,  3,  2, 15,
      13,  8, 10,  1,  3, 15,  4,  2, 11,  6,  7, 12,  0,  5, 14,  9,
                              /* S[3]                 */
      10,  0,  9, 14,  6,  3, 15,  5,  1, 13, 12,  7, 11,  4,  2,  8,
      13,  7,  0,  9,  3,  4,  6, 10,  2,  8,  5, 14, 12, 11, 15,  1,
      13,  6,  4,  9,  8, 15,  3,  0, 11,  1,  2, 12,  5, 10, 14,  7,
       1, 10, 13,  0,  6,  9,  8,  7,  4, 15, 14,  3, 11,  5,  2, 12,
                              /* S[4]                 */
       7, 13, 14,  3,  0,  6,  9, 10,  1,  2,  8,  5, 11, 12,  4, 15,
      13,  8, 11,  5,  6, 15,  0,  3,  4,  7,  2, 12,  1, 10, 14,  9,
      10,  6,  9,  0, 12, 11,  7, 13, 15,  1,  3, 14,  5,  2,  8,  4,
       3, 15,  0,  6, 10,  1, 13,  8,  9,  4,  5, 11, 12,  7,  2, 14,
                              /* S[5]                 */
       2, 12,  4,  1,  7, 10, 11,  6,  8,  5,  3, 15, 13,  0, 14,  9,
      14, 11,  2, 12,  4,  7, 13,  1,  5,  0, 15, 10,  3,  9,  8,  6,
       4,  2,  1, 11, 10, 13,  7,  8, 15,  9, 12,  5,  6,  3,  0, 14,
      11,  8, 12,  7,  1, 14,  2, 13,  6, 15,  0,  9, 10,  4,  5,  3,
                              /* S[6]                 */
      12,  1, 10, 15,  9,  2,  6,  8,  0, 13,  3,  4, 14,  7,  5, 11,
      10, 15,  4,  2,  7, 12,  9,  5,  6,  1, 13, 14,  0, 11,  3,  8,
       9, 14, 15,  5,  2,  8, 12,  3,  7,  0,  4, 10,  1, 13, 11,  6,
       4,  3,  2, 12,  9,  5, 15, 10, 11, 14,  1,  7,  6,  0,  8, 13,
                              /* S[7]                 */
       4, 11,  2, 14, 15,  0,  8, 13,  3, 12,  9,  7,  5, 10,  6,  1,
      13,  0, 11,  7,  4,  9,  1, 10, 14,  3,  5, 12,  2, 15,  8,  6,
       1,  4, 11, 13, 12,  3,  7, 14, 10, 15,  6,  8,  0,  5,  9,  2,
       6, 11, 13,  8,  1,  4, 10,  7,  9,  5,  0, 15, 14,  2,  3, 12,
                              /* S[8]                 */
      13,  2,  8,  4,  6, 15, 11,  1, 10,  9,  3, 14,  5,  0, 12,  7,
       1, 15, 13,  8, 10,  3,  7,  4, 12,  5,  6, 11,  0, 14,  9,  2,
       7, 11,  4,  1,  9, 12, 14,  2,  0,  6, 10, 13, 15,  3,  5,  8,
       2,  1, 14,  7,  4, 10,  8, 13, 15, 12,  9,  0,  3,  5,  6, 11,
};

static unsigned char P32Tr[] = {    /* 32-bit permutation function */
      16,  7, 20, 21,
      29, 12, 28, 17,
       1, 15, 23, 26,
       5, 18, 31, 10,
       2,  8, 24, 14,
      32, 27,  3,  9,
      19, 13, 30,  6,
      22, 11,  4, 25,
};

static unsigned char CIFP[] = {           /* compressed/interleaved permutation */
       1,  2,  3,  4,   17, 18, 19, 20,
       5,  6,  7,  8,   21, 22, 23, 24,
       9, 10, 11, 12,   25, 26, 27, 28,
      13, 14, 15, 16,   29, 30, 31, 32,

      33, 34, 35, 36,   49, 50, 51, 52,
      37, 38, 39, 40,   53, 54, 55, 56,
      41, 42, 43, 44,   57, 58, 59, 60,
      45, 46, 47, 48,   61, 62, 63, 64,
};

static unsigned char itoa64[] =           /* 0..63 => ascii-64 */
      "./0123456789ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZabcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz";


/* =====  Tables that are initialized at run time  ==================== */


static unsigned char a64toi[128];   /* ascii-64 => 0..63 */

/* Initial key schedule permutation */
static C_block    PC1ROT[64/CHUNKBITS][1<<CHUNKBITS];

/* Subsequent key schedule rotation permutations */
static C_block    PC2ROT[2][64/CHUNKBITS][1<<CHUNKBITS];

/* Initial permutation/expansion table */
static C_block    IE3264[32/CHUNKBITS][1<<CHUNKBITS];

/* Table that combines the S, P, and E operations.  */
static long SPE[2][8][64];

/* compressed/interleaved => final permutation table */
static C_block    CF6464[64/CHUNKBITS][1<<CHUNKBITS];


/* ==================================== */

static C_block    constdatablock;               /* encryption constant */
static char cryptresult[1+4+4+11+1];      /* encrypted result */

/*
 * Initialize "perm" to represent transformation "p", which rearranges
 * (perhaps with expansion and/or contraction) one packed array of bits
 * (of size "chars_in" characters) into another array (of size "chars_out"
 * characters).
 *
 * "perm" must be all-zeroes on entry to this routine.
 */
static void init_perm(C_block perm[64/CHUNKBITS][1<<CHUNKBITS], 
      unsigned char p[64], int chars_in, int chars_out) {
      register int i, j, k, l;

      for (k = 0; k < chars_out*8; k++) { /* each output bit position */
            l = p[k] - 1;           /* where this bit comes from */
            if (l < 0)
                  continue;   /* output bit is always 0 */
            i = l>>LGCHUNKBITS;     /* which chunk this bit comes from */
            l = 1<<(l&(CHUNKBITS-1));     /* mask for this bit */
            for (j = 0; j < (1<<CHUNKBITS); j++) {    /* each chunk value */
                  if ((j & l) != 0)
                        perm[i][j].b[k>>3] |= 1<<(k&07);
            }
      }
}

/*
 * Initialize various tables.  This need only be done once.  It could even be
 * done at compile time, if the compiler were capable of that sort of thing.
 */
static void init_des(void) {
      register int i, j;
      register long k;
      register int tableno;
      static unsigned char perm[64], tmp32[32]; /* "static" for speed */

      /*
       * table that converts chars "./0-9A-Za-z"to integers 0-63.
       */
      for (i = 0; i < 64; i++)
            a64toi[itoa64[i]] = i;

      /*
       * PC1ROT - bit reverse, then PC1, then Rotate, then PC2.
       */
      for (i = 0; i < 64; i++)
            perm[i] = 0;
      for (i = 0; i < 64; i++) {
            if ((k = PC2[i]) == 0)
                  continue;
            k += Rotates[0]-1;
            if ((k%28) < Rotates[0]) k -= 28;
            k = PC1[k];
            if (k > 0) {
                  k--;
                  k = (k|07) - (k&07);
                  k++;
            }
            perm[i] = (unsigned char) k;
      }
#ifdef DEBUG
      prtab("pc1tab", perm, 8);
#endif
      init_perm(PC1ROT, perm, 8, 8);

      /*
       * PC2ROT - PC2 inverse, then Rotate (once or twice), then PC2.
       */
      for (j = 0; j < 2; j++) {
            unsigned char pc2inv[64];
            for (i = 0; i < 64; i++)
                  perm[i] = pc2inv[i] = 0;
            for (i = 0; i < 64; i++) {
                  if ((k = PC2[i]) == 0)
                        continue;
                  pc2inv[k-1] = i+1;
            }
            for (i = 0; i < 64; i++) {
                  if ((k = PC2[i]) == 0)
                        continue;
                  k += j;
                  if ((k%28) <= j) k -= 28;
                  perm[i] = pc2inv[k];
            }
#ifdef DEBUG
            prtab("pc2tab", perm, 8);
#endif
            init_perm(PC2ROT[j], perm, 8, 8);
      }

      /*
       * Bit reverse, then initial permutation, then expansion.
       */
      for (i = 0; i < 8; i++) {
            for (j = 0; j < 8; j++) {
                  k = (j < 2)? 0: IP[ExpandTr[i*6+j-2]-1];
                  if (k > 32)
                        k -= 32;
                  else if (k > 0)
                        k--;
                  if (k > 0) {
                        k--;
                        k = (k|07) - (k&07);
                        k++;
                  }
                  perm[i*8+j] = (unsigned char) k;
            }
      }
#ifdef DEBUG
      prtab("ietab", perm, 8);
#endif
      init_perm(IE3264, perm, 4, 8);

      /*
       * Compression, then final permutation, then bit reverse.
       */
      for (i = 0; i < 64; i++) {
            k = IP[CIFP[i]-1];
            if (k > 0) {
                  k--;
                  k = (k|07) - (k&07);
                  k++;
            }
            perm[k-1] = i+1;
      }
#ifdef DEBUG
      prtab("cftab", perm, 8);
#endif
      init_perm(CF6464, perm, 8, 8);

      /*
       * SPE table
       */
      for (i = 0; i < 48; i++)
            perm[i] = P32Tr[ExpandTr[i]-1];
      for (tableno = 0; tableno < 8; tableno++) {
            for (j = 0; j < 64; j++)  {
                  k = (((j >> 0) &01) << 5)|
                      (((j >> 1) &01) << 3)|
                      (((j >> 2) &01) << 2)|
                      (((j >> 3) &01) << 1)|
                      (((j >> 4) &01) << 0)|
                      (((j >> 5) &01) << 4);
                  k = S[tableno][k];
                  k = (((k >> 3)&01) << 0)|
                      (((k >> 2)&01) << 1)|
                      (((k >> 1)&01) << 2)|
                      (((k >> 0)&01) << 3);
                  for (i = 0; i < 32; i++)
                        tmp32[i] = 0;
                  for (i = 0; i < 4; i++)
                        tmp32[4 * tableno + i] = (k >> i) & 01;
                  k = 0;
                  for (i = 24; --i >= 0; )
                        k = (k<<1) | tmp32[perm[i]-1];
                  TO_SIX_BIT(SPE[0][tableno][j], k);
                  k = 0;
                  for (i = 24; --i >= 0; )
                        k = (k<<1) | tmp32[perm[i+24]-1];
                  TO_SIX_BIT(SPE[1][tableno][j], k);
            }
      }
}

/*
 * The Key Schedule, filled in by des_setkey() or setkey().
 */
#define     KS_SIZE     16
static C_block    KS[KS_SIZE];

/*
 * Set up the key schedule from the key.
 */
static int des_setkey(register const char *key) {
      register DCL_BLOCK_K;
      register C_block *ptabp;
      register int i;
      static int des_ready = 0;

      if (!des_ready) {
            init_des();
            des_ready = 1;
      }

      PERM6464(K,K0,K1,(unsigned char *)key,(C_block *)PC1ROT);
      key = (char *)&KS[0];
      STORE(K&~0x03030303L, K0&~0x03030303L, K1, *(C_block *)key);
      for (i = 1; i < 16; i++) {
            key += sizeof(C_block);
            STORE(K,K0,K1,*(C_block *)key);
            ptabp = (C_block *)PC2ROT[Rotates[i]-1];
            PERM6464(K,K0,K1,(unsigned char *)key,ptabp);
            STORE(K&~0x03030303L, K0&~0x03030303L, K1, *(C_block *)key);
      }
      return (0);
}

/*
 * Encrypt (or decrypt if num_iter < 0) the 8 chars at "in" with abs(num_iter)
 * iterations of DES, using the the given 24-bit salt and the pre-computed key
 * schedule, and store the resulting 8 chars at "out" (in == out is permitted).
 *
 * NOTE: the performance of this routine is critically dependent on your
 * compiler and machine architecture.
 */
static int des_cipher(const char *in, char *out, long salt, int num_iter) {
      /* variables that we want in registers, most important first */
#if defined(pdp11)
      register int j;
#endif
      register long L0, L1, R0, R1, k;
      register C_block *kp;
      register int ks_inc, loop_count;
      C_block B;

      L0 = salt;
      TO_SIX_BIT(salt, L0);   /* convert to 4*(6+2) format */

#if defined(vax) || defined(pdp11)
      salt = ~salt;     /* "x &~ y" is faster than "x & y". */
#define     SALT (~salt)
#else
#define     SALT salt
#endif

#if defined(MUST_ALIGN)
      B.b[0] = in[0]; B.b[1] = in[1]; B.b[2] = in[2]; B.b[3] = in[3];
      B.b[4] = in[4]; B.b[5] = in[5]; B.b[6] = in[6]; B.b[7] = in[7];
      LOAD(L,L0,L1,B);
#else
      LOAD(L,L0,L1,*(C_block *)in);
#endif
      LOADREG(R,R0,R1,L,L0,L1);
      L0 &= 0x55555555L;
      L1 &= 0x55555555L;
      L0 = (L0 << 1) | L1;    /* L0 is the even-numbered input bits */
      R0 &= 0xaaaaaaaaL;
      R1 = (R1 >> 1) & 0x55555555L;
      L1 = R0 | R1;           /* L1 is the odd-numbered input bits */
      STORE(L,L0,L1,B);
      PERM3264(L,L0,L1,B.b,  (C_block *)IE3264);      /* even bits */
      PERM3264(R,R0,R1,B.b+4,(C_block *)IE3264);      /* odd bits */

      if (num_iter >= 0)
      {           /* encryption */
            kp = &KS[0];
            ks_inc  = sizeof(*kp);
      }
      else
      {           /* decryption */
            num_iter = -num_iter;
            kp = &KS[KS_SIZE-1];
            ks_inc  = -((int) sizeof(*kp));
      }

      while (--num_iter >= 0) {
            loop_count = 8;
            do {

#define     SPTAB(t, i) (*(long *)((unsigned char *)t + i*(sizeof(long)/4)))
#if defined(gould)
                  /* use this if B.b[i] is evaluated just once ... */
#define     DOXOR(x,y,i)      x^=SPTAB(SPE[0][i],B.b[i]); y^=SPTAB(SPE[1][i],B.b[i]);
#else
#if defined(pdp11)
                  /* use this if your "long" int indexing is slow */
#define     DOXOR(x,y,i)      j=B.b[i]; x^=SPTAB(SPE[0][i],j); y^=SPTAB(SPE[1][i],j);
#else
                  /* use this if "k" is allocated to a register ... */
#define     DOXOR(x,y,i)      k=B.b[i]; x^=SPTAB(SPE[0][i],k); y^=SPTAB(SPE[1][i],k);
#endif
#endif

#define     CRUNCH(p0, p1, q0, q1)  \
                  k = (q0 ^ q1) & SALT;   \
                  B.b32.i0 = k ^ q0 ^ kp->b32.i0;           \
                  B.b32.i1 = k ^ q1 ^ kp->b32.i1;           \
                  kp = (C_block *)((char *)kp+ks_inc);      \
                                          \
                  DOXOR(p0, p1, 0);       \
                  DOXOR(p0, p1, 1);       \
                  DOXOR(p0, p1, 2);       \
                  DOXOR(p0, p1, 3);       \
                  DOXOR(p0, p1, 4);       \
                  DOXOR(p0, p1, 5);       \
                  DOXOR(p0, p1, 6);       \
                  DOXOR(p0, p1, 7);

                  CRUNCH(L0, L1, R0, R1);
                  CRUNCH(R0, R1, L0, L1);
            } while (--loop_count != 0);
            kp = (C_block *)((char *)kp-(ks_inc*KS_SIZE));


            /* swap L and R */
            L0 ^= R0;  L1 ^= R1;
            R0 ^= L0;  R1 ^= L1;
            L0 ^= R0;  L1 ^= R1;
      }

      /* store the encrypted (or decrypted) result */
      L0 = ((L0 >> 3) & 0x0f0f0f0fL) | ((L1 << 1) & 0xf0f0f0f0L);
      L1 = ((R0 >> 3) & 0x0f0f0f0fL) | ((R1 << 1) & 0xf0f0f0f0L);
      STORE(L,L0,L1,B);
      PERM6464(L,L0,L1,B.b, (C_block *)CF6464);
#if defined(MUST_ALIGN)
      STORE(L,L0,L1,B);
      out[0] = B.b[0]; out[1] = B.b[1]; out[2] = B.b[2]; out[3] = B.b[3];
      out[4] = B.b[4]; out[5] = B.b[5]; out[6] = B.b[6]; out[7] = B.b[7];
#else
      STORE(L,L0,L1,*(C_block *)out);
#endif
      return (0);
}

/*
 * "setkey" routine (for backwards compatibility)
 */
extern int setkey(register const char *key) {
      register int i, j, k;
      C_block keyblock;

      for (i = 0; i < 8; i++) {
            k = 0;
            for (j = 0; j < 8; j++) {
                  k <<= 1;
                  k |= (unsigned char)*key++;
            }
            keyblock.b[i] = k;
      }
      return (des_setkey((char *)keyblock.b));
}

/*
 * "encrypt" routine (for backwards compatibility)
 */
extern int encrypt(register char *block, int flag) {
      register int i, j, k;
      C_block cblock;

      for (i = 0; i < 8; i++) {
            k = 0;
            for (j = 0; j < 8; j++) {
                  k <<= 1;
                  k |= (unsigned char)*block++;
            }
            cblock.b[i] = k;
      }
      if (des_cipher((char *)&cblock, (char *)&cblock, 0L, (flag ? -1: 1)))
            return (1);
      for (i = 7; i >= 0; i--) {
            k = cblock.b[i];
            for (j = 7; j >= 0; j--) {
                  *--block = k&01;
                  k >>= 1;
            }
      }
      return (0);
}

/*
 * Return a pointer to static data consisting of the "setting"
 * followed by an encryption produced by the "key" and "setting".
 */
extern char * crypt(register const char *key, register const char *setting) {
      register char *encp;
      register long i;
      register int t;
      long salt;
      int num_iter, salt_size;
      C_block keyblock, rsltblock;

#ifdef HL_NOENCRYPTION
      char buff[1024];
      strncpy(buff, key, 1024);
      buff[1023] = 0;
      return buff;
#endif

      for (i = 0; i < 8; i++) {
            if ((t = 2*(unsigned char)(*key)) != 0)
                  key++;
            keyblock.b[i] = t;
      }
      if (des_setkey((char *)keyblock.b)) /* also initializes "a64toi" */
            return (NULL);

      encp = &cryptresult[0];
      switch (*setting) {
      case _PASSWORD_EFMT1:
            /*
             * Involve the rest of the password 8 characters at a time.
             */
            while (*key) {
                  if (des_cipher((char *)&keyblock,
                      (char *)&keyblock, 0L, 1))
                        return (NULL);
                  for (i = 0; i < 8; i++) {
                        if ((t = 2*(unsigned char)(*key)) != 0)
                              key++;
                        keyblock.b[i] ^= t;
                  }
                  if (des_setkey((char *)keyblock.b))
                        return (NULL);
            }

            *encp++ = *setting++;

            /* get iteration count */
            num_iter = 0;
            for (i = 4; --i >= 0; ) {
                  if ((t = (unsigned char)setting[i]) == '\0')
                        t = '.';
                  encp[i] = t;
                  num_iter = (num_iter<<6) | a64toi[t];
            }
            setting += 4;
            encp += 4;
            salt_size = 4;
            break;
      default:
            num_iter = 25;
            salt_size = 2;
      }

      salt = 0;
      for (i = salt_size; --i >= 0; ) {
            if ((t = (unsigned char)setting[i]) == '\0')
                  t = '.';
            encp[i] = t;
            salt = (salt<<6) | a64toi[t];
      }
      encp += salt_size;
      if (des_cipher((char *)&constdatablock, (char *)&rsltblock,
          salt, num_iter))
            return (NULL);

      /*
       * Encode the 64 cipher bits as 11 ascii characters.
       */
      i = ((long)((rsltblock.b[0]<<8) | rsltblock.b[1])<<8) | rsltblock.b[2];
      encp[3] = itoa64[i&0x3f];     i >>= 6;
      encp[2] = itoa64[i&0x3f];     i >>= 6;
      encp[1] = itoa64[i&0x3f];     i >>= 6;
      encp[0] = itoa64[i];          encp += 4;
      i = ((long)((rsltblock.b[3]<<8) | rsltblock.b[4])<<8) | rsltblock.b[5];
      encp[3] = itoa64[i&0x3f];     i >>= 6;
      encp[2] = itoa64[i&0x3f];     i >>= 6;
      encp[1] = itoa64[i&0x3f];     i >>= 6;
      encp[0] = itoa64[i];          encp += 4;
      i = ((long)((rsltblock.b[6])<<8) | rsltblock.b[7])<<2;
      encp[2] = itoa64[i&0x3f];     i >>= 6;
      encp[1] = itoa64[i&0x3f];     i >>= 6;
      encp[0] = itoa64[i];

      encp[3] = 0;

      return (cryptresult);
}

#ifdef DEBUG
STATIC
prtab(s, t, num_rows)
      char *s;
      unsigned char *t;
      int num_rows;
{
      register int i, j;

      (void)printf("%s:\n", s);
      for (i = 0; i < num_rows; i++) {
            for (j = 0; j < 8; j++) {
                   (void)printf("%3d", t[i*8+j]);
            }
            (void)printf("\n");
      }
      (void)printf("\n");
}
#endif

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